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Clinical Research and Trials

Online ISSN: 2059-0377

Journal Impact Factor: 1.66*

NLM ID: 101660517

Akira Sugawara (Editor in Chief)

Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan

Clinical Research and Trials is an international, peer- reviewed, Bi-monthly, open access online journal. The journal publishes original research, reports, editorials, reviews and commentaries on all aspects of pharmaceutical, clinical trials, researches and related medical research methodologies. Clinical trials journal including, but not limited to, clinical trial design, conduct, decision analysis, synthesis, history, statistical methods, data management, legal, ethical and regulatory issues, case record form design, data collection, quality assurance, data auditing methodologies, risk-benefit, cost-effectiveness, clinical or policy impact of all types of clinical trials and related medical research methodologies.

Clinical trials journal aims to publish all the original research in fields of science, medicine and pharmacy and committed to facilitating the translation of research from the laboratory, to the patient’s bedside, to the community, in order to make a difference in the lives of patients. The ultimate goal of Clinical trials journal provides platform for knowledge exchange between experts in different disciplines related to clinical trials, and in turn advance this field of research.

The topics covered in Clinical trials journal include all disciplines of clinical medicine, medical research and clinical practice, treatment trials, prevention trials, diagnostic trials, screening trials, any intervention such as drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, preventive medicine, epidemiology, nursing, rehabilitation clinical trials/treatment strategies in occupational therapy, physical therapy or speech and language pathology, behavioural treatment, lifestyle modifications, new ways to use existing treatments, healthcare research and other aspects of care, that improve the quality of life for people with chronic illness.

Clinical trials journal submissions include interventional trials reports, evidence-based medical research reports, review reports, meta-analyses, health policies, observational studies, retrospective and prospective studies/commentaries, and other clinical studies.

We look forward to receiving your contribution!

Clinical trials journal welcomes direct submissions of manuscripts from authors. You can submit your manuscript to: submissions@oatext.com

*2018 Journal Impact Factor is the ratio of the number of citations achieved in the year 2018 based on Google Search and Google Scholar Citations to the total number of articles published in the last two years i.e. in 2016 and 2017. Impact factor measures the quality of the Journal. If ‘X’ is the total number of articles published in 2016 and 2017, and ‘Y’ is the number of times these articles were cited in indexed journals during 2018 then, impact factor = Y/X.

Akira Sugawara


Dr. Akira Sugawara is working as a Professor in Department of Molecular Endocrinology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine. He performed Postdoctoral Fellowship in William Chin’s laboratory at the Women’s Hospital/Harvard Medical School in Boston from 1991 to 1994.

He got Ph.D. in 1991 from Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine. Dr. Akira Sugawara doing many clinical works in Tohoku University Hospital. He received many awards and also a member in various Professional Societies. He is serving as a member in Editorial Board and has several publications.

Dr. Akira Sugawara honoured with many awards like The Japan Endocrine Society Award in 2006; Medical Education Award, Tohoku University School of Medicine in 2005; Research Award, Miyagi Medical Association in 2005; Gold Prize, Tohoku University School of Medicine in 2005; Award, 8th Grants for Hypertension and Atherosclerosis in 2003, Research Award Recommended by President, The Society of Cardiovascular Endocrinology and Metabolism in 2000; The Highest Award, 8th Grants for Hypertension and Vascular Metabolism, Japan Heart Foundation in 2000.

Editorial Board


Emily P. Piven

Executive Editor
Retired Associate Professor of Occupational Therapy

Brian I. Carr

Professor and Chief
Liver Cancer Program
IRCCS de Bellis

Vladimir Egorov

CEO, Advanced Tactile Imaging, Inc.
VP Technology Development
Artann Laboratories, Inc.


Shian-Ling Keng

Department of Psychology
National University of Singapore

Alberto Morales Salinas

Cardiology Research Advisor "Ernesto Che Guevara"
Member of the Cuban Society of Cardiology and General Medicine

Nenad Spasic

Head of MRI department in Railway Health Disease Institution
CT & MR radiologist in National Cancer Research Center


Mallikarjunarao Kasam

Diagnostic Medical Physicist
Mayo Clinic

Gopal jee Gopal

Assistant Professor
Department Of Biochemistry
The M.S. University of Baroda

Ajay Goel

Investigator
Director, Center for Gastrointestinal Research
Director, Center for Epigenetics,
Cancer Prevention and Cancer Genomics
Baylor Research Institute and
Charles A. Sammons Cancer Center
Baylor University Medical Center


Wilbert S. Aronow

Professor
Division of Cradiology
New York Medical College

Raouf A Khalil

Harvard Medical School
Brigham and Women's Hospital
Division of Vascular Surgery

Yong Song

Assistant Professor
School of Anatomy, Physiology &
Human Biology
The University of Western Australia


Haris Kokotas

Principal Investigator
Department of Genetics
Institute of Child Health

Raghu Dhanapal

Assistant professor
AIMST University

Uttam K. Sinha

Medical Director, Head and Neck Surgery
Associate Dean, Surgical Simulation
Watt Chair, Head and Neck Cancer Research
Keck Medical Center of USC


Hiroaki Satoh

Associate Professor of Medicine
Department of Nephrology, Hypertension, Diabetology, Endocrinology, and Metabolism
Fukushima Medical University

Jon Ver Halen

Chair, Department of Plastic Surgery
Baptist Medical Group
Baptist Memorial Hospital

Sudha Rao

Associate Professor
Molecular & Cellular Biology
University of Canberra


Akira Sugawara

Professor
Department of Molecular Endocrinology
Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine

Aaron Elliott

VP, Research and Development
Ambry Genetics

Clayton A. Dehn, MS

Executive Director
Metabolic Diseases
Celerion


Raj Kumar

Professor
Department of Basic Sciences
The Commonwealth Medical College

Dongren Ren

Project Director
Biology and Psychology Department
University of Nebraska at Omaha

Jianfeng Lu

Assistant Scientist
Department of Neuroscience & Department of Neurology School of Medicine and Public Health
University of Wisconsin-Madison


Nassim R. Krim, MD

Director, Cardiac Catheterization
Laboratory and Interventional Cardiology
Bronx-Lebanon Hospital
Assistant Professor
Albert-Einstein College of Medicine
Yeshiva University

Takao Ando, MD, PhD

Associate Professor
First Department of Medicine
Nagasaki University Hospital

Gerónimo Maldonado-Martínez

Assistant Professor
San Juan Bautista School of Medicine
Public Health Graduate Program
Puerto Rico


Sahar S Abdelmoneim

Assistant Professor of Medicine
Mayo Clinic

Vimal Karani S

Assistant Professor
Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition
Food & Nutritional Sciences
School of Chemistry Food & Pharmacy
University of Reading

Andrea Tinelli

Chief
Department of Gynecology and Obstetric
“Vito Fazzi” Hospital


Phani Veeranki

Assistant Professor
Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health
The University of Texas Medical Branch

Natasha Gupta MD

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mount Sinai Hospital
Assistant Professor
Ross University School of Medicine

Richard Boudreau

Attorney at Law & Faculty Loyola Marymount Univ. Bioethics Institute
USA


Zijian Li

Graduate Research Assistant
Case Western Reserve University
USA

Anwen Shao

Department of Neurosurgery
The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou
China

In Press


Will be updated soon.

Current Issue

Volume 5, Issue 4


How to improve disease management of chronically ill patients? Perception of telemetric ECG recording and a novel software application

Michael Lang Stefan Ringbauer Martin Mayr Lukas Cepek

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

July 11, 2019


Computer-Aided transoral partial mandibulectomy and reconstruction: Case Report

Christopher Liangcheng Chen Yan-Chi Chen Michael Yuanchien Chen

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 02, 2019


Drugs–β-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex: Would be a new strategy to improve Antihypertensive Therapy?

Quiara Lovatti Alves Samuel Barbosa Camargo Rafael Leonne Cruz de Jesus Darízy Flávia Silva

Short Communication-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 05, 2019


Bayesian methods for mixed method synthesis

Leonardo Roever

Letter to Editor-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 05, 2019


Unravelling the controversies surrounding host immune response to helminth and malaria parasites

Dennis Adu-Gyasi Margaret T. Frempong Harry Danwonno Alberta Bedford Moses Ben Gyan

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 12, 2019


Heller syndrome in two Iraqi children

Aamir Jalal Al Mosawi

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 26, 2019


The sixty fourth case of pediatric Churg Strauss syndrome

Aamir Jalal Al Mosawi Bab Al Muadham

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 30, 2019


Archive


Volume 5

How to improve disease management of chronically ill patients? Perception of telemetric ECG recording and a novel software application

Michael Lang Stefan Ringbauer Martin Mayr Lukas Cepek

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

July 11, 2019


Computer-Aided transoral partial mandibulectomy and reconstruction: Case Report

Christopher Liangcheng Chen Yan-Chi Chen Michael Yuanchien Chen

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 02, 2019


Drugs–β-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex: Would be a new strategy to improve Antihypertensive Therapy?

Quiara Lovatti Alves Samuel Barbosa Camargo Rafael Leonne Cruz de Jesus Darízy Flávia Silva

Short Communication-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 05, 2019


Bayesian methods for mixed method synthesis

Leonardo Roever

Letter to Editor-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 05, 2019


Unravelling the controversies surrounding host immune response to helminth and malaria parasites

Dennis Adu-Gyasi Margaret T. Frempong Harry Danwonno Alberta Bedford Moses Ben Gyan

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 12, 2019


Heller syndrome in two Iraqi children

Aamir Jalal Al Mosawi

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 26, 2019


The sixty fourth case of pediatric Churg Strauss syndrome

Aamir Jalal Al Mosawi Bab Al Muadham

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 30, 2019


propofol-target-controlled-infusion-performance-of-the-schnider-model-in-the-clinical-setting-for-major-surgical-procedures

Luis Neumann Thomas Mohler Marc P. Steurer Max Zueger Thomas Kraemer Alexander Dullenkopf

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 13, 2019


Role of ischemia-reperfusion in oxidative stress-mediated injury during kidney transplantation

Cristóbal Ávila Lucas Líbano Ignacio Rojas Ramón Rodrigo

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 17, 2019


Differences, similarities and controversies between bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Alcibey Alvarado

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 23, 2019


Platelet-derived vesicles in acute myocardial infarction

Alexander E Berezin Alexander A Berezin

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 27, 2019


Albumin and adequacy of its application

Andrey Belousov

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 30, 2019


Neurogenic hyperpyrexia following acute traumatic spinal cord injury. A Systematic Review

Panagiotis Korovessis

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

June 17, 2019


An innovative patient-mentoring program for kidney transplant patients to reduce anxiety and readmission rates: a randomized controlled trial leveraging patients

Chelsea R Horwood Susan Moffatt-Bruce Shannon Harris Yeojun Chun Kristen Hill Mary Lou Hauenstein Patrick Howe Aravind Chandrasekaran

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

February 18, 2019


CAR-T cells with co-expressed cytokines and chemokines better overcome inhibitory microenvironment of solid tumors

Vita Golubovskaya

Commentary-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 22, 2019


ED impact of a mass gathering pre-hospital support system: the Rouen 2013 Armada event

Dumouchel J Roussel M Taalba M Lefevre A Joly LM Lvovschi VE

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 29, 2019


Coexistence of immune thrombocytopenic purpura and polycythemia vera

Didar Yanardag Acik

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 29, 2019


Severe hepatopathy and celiac disease (CD)

Firwana M benelberhdadi I Aomari A Ajana FZ

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 29, 2019


Validation of myocardial damage biomarkers as reliable predictors of infarct size and ejection fraction impairment assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance

Lucía Del Valle-Batalla Raúl Castillo-Astorga Rodolfo Prieto-Riveros Jaime González Rubén Aguayo Kjersti Nes Cristóbal Ramos Juan Carlos Prieto-Riveros Ramón Rodrigo

Short Communication-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 30, 2019


The role of oxidative stress in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury: potential target for interventions in liver transplantation

Consuelo Orellana Rodrigo Villagrán Jonathan Zang Ramón Rodrigo

Mini Review-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 30, 2019


The role of IL-8 in the immune response associated to cancer development

Manuela Gonzalez-Aparicio Carlos Alfaro

Opinion Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

December 17, 2018


The Unexplored Frontier of Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Patients with Rheumatic Disease

Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado Eduardo A Wilson-Manríquez Efrain Chavarria-Avila Esther G Corona-Sanchez Ana L Márquez-Aguirre Flavio Sandoval-García Beatriz T Martín-Márquez Erika A Martínez-García Rosa E Navarro-Hernández Sergio Duran-Barragan Oscar Pizano-Martinez

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 24, 2019


Evidence that ethanol selectively alters dopamine and serotonin metabolism as well as peptidergic levels in CA3 hippocampus of spontaneously alcohol preferring rats

Francesco Crespi Francesco Congestri Francesca Formenti

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 24, 2019


The “Hygiene” Hypothesis: repercussions of infectious diseases control programmes

Alberta Bedford Moses Dennis Adu-Gyasi

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 25, 2019


Eccrine carcinoma – A clinical image

Luciano Zogbi Bianca Rocha Alves

Clinical Image-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 28, 2019


Atherosclerosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: An Ongoing Challenge

Allison B Reiss Amy D Glass David J Grossfeld Heather A Renna Daniel S Glass Lora J Kasselman Joshua De Leon Steven E Carsons

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 31, 2019


Uncommon IgA lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma: Case report

André Domingues Pereira Matheus Vescovi Gonçalves Alex Freire Sandes Elisabetta Sachsida Colombo Celso Arrais Rodrigues

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 31, 2019


Volume 4

Acute intermittent porphyria in elderly undergoing hemodialysis: resolution of tetraplegia with systemic hemin and rehabilitation

Claudio Carmine Guida Maria Savino Lazzaro DI Mauro Filippo Aucella

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 15, 2018


Hormonal treatment of vulvar vaginal atrophy (VVA): Are there options to reduce or avoid systemic adverse effects and risks?

Xiangyan RUAN Alfred O MUECK

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 22, 2018


Fibrosis: The sixth element

Alcibey Alvarado

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 23, 2018


Supplementation with fish oil improves life quality, and decreases inflammatory status and oxidative stress in psoriasis

Naiara Lourenço Mari Lorena Flor da Rosa Franchi Santos M.Sc., Daniela Frizon Alfieri Tamires Fauzino Marcell Alysson Batisti Lozovoy Ligia Márcia Mário Martin Julia Pagung Kipper Clarissa Patias Lena Priscila da Silva Taguti Andréa Name Colado Simão Isaias Dichi

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 27, 2018


Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Expression in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Cirrhosis and Normal Hepatic Tissue

Lazaretti NS Macedo BR Izetti P Meurer L Rodriguez R Schwartsmann G

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 29, 2018


Targeted therapies in the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma

Michael R. Migden

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 09, 2018


DNA methylation confers clinical potential to predict the oral cancer prognosis

Cheng-Chieh Yang Cheng-Hsien Wu Chi-Feng Chang Chien-Ping Hung Micah Sy Hsiao-Shan Lin Chih-Shun Tseng Shou-Yen Kao

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 27, 2018


Neurotropin abrogates lidocaine-induced suppression of neurite growth in cultured rat spinal neurons

Risa Isonaka Takashi Katakura Tadashi Kawakami

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

September 17, 2018


Structural magnetic resonance imaging and detailed motor assessment for chronic-phase patients after stroke

Ryo Ueda Naoki Yamada Masahiro Abo Atsushi Senoo

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

September 28, 2018


Respiratory Pathologies Associated with Obesity

Alcibey Alvarado

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

September 28, 2018


The “Ockham’s razor” approach to diseases and patients: viruses from the picornaviridae family and related diseases

Jevtovic Dj

Letter to Editor-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

September 28, 2018


Changing microbiology of indwelling venous catheter related infection

Lokesh Shahani Chad Noggle Nancy Khardori

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

July 02, 2018


Time for cancer Immunotherapy!

Volker Schirrmacher

Commentary-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

July 14, 2018


Minas Gerais: a case of success in technological innovation in Brazil

Amanda Luisa da Fonseca Fernando de Pilla Varotti

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

July 28, 2018


Dehydration in harsh winter from dry heat: Case series

Samiksha Gupta Moises Auron Mohit Gupta

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

July 28, 2018


Prevalence and characteristics of sexual harassment among high school students: a pilot study

Greta Grigentyte Sigita Lesinskiene

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

July 28, 2018


A Phenotypical Case of Anti-MDA5 Positive Dermatomyositis

Kelly B. Scarberry Akaolisa Eziokwu Mohammad Khan Mohit Gupta

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

July 28, 2018


Challenging the convention of utilizing actual body weight dosing with intravenous immune globulin

Elizabeth Wojakowski Brian Kersten Ashley E. Woodruff

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

July 30, 2018


Traumatic brain injury as a risk factor for dementia: Literature Review

Papageorgiou Dimitris Sela Ervina- Anastasia

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 21, 2018


Autoimmunity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Un Update

Alcibey Alvarado

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 24, 2018


Improving informed consent in cardiology practice: How much we need to do

Hadi Khafaji Haneen Al-Gerrah Asim Cheema

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 28, 2018


Determining an effective and coherent theoretical basis for the validity of consent in clinical trials

Dr. Puneet Arora

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 28, 2018


Serial measurements of blood lactate and early outcome of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy after therapeutic hypothermia

Heljic S Hukeljic L Terzic S Spahovic R

Research Article -Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 31, 2018


Fetal ultrasound of Type 2 and 3 Chiari Malformation

Aysegul Altunkeser Turgay Kara

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

February 26, 2018


Factors Related to Nurses? Attitudes Towards the Suicidal Patient: An Integrative Review

Karen Patterson Stevens Mary A. Nies

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

February 26, 2018


Possible Application of Entirely New Gene/Protein to Clinical Research

Kenji Ikehara

Short communication-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

February 28, 2018


A case report: Rhabdoid glioblastoma

Qi Yang Yang-Hong Zou Jin-Tao Li

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

February 28, 2018


Right Atrial Cardiac Thymoma with Superior Vena Cava Extension

SanthirasekaranGanapathipillai BiyankaJaltotage Ashu Gupta Chris Judkins

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

March 08, 2018


A post marketing evaluation of the efficacy of Rapid Recovery in reducing symptoms of hangover

Jan Beatrice Quinton Rhianna Megan Kemm Laurence Guy Howes

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

March 08, 2018


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in non-smokers: An Update

Alcibey Alvarado

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

March 29, 2018


A qualitative evaluation of patient’s perceptions of therapeutic alliance on mental health acute inpatient wards

Jean-Manuel Morvillers RN Monique Rothan-Tondeur

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

December 11, 2017


G-CSF related hemophagocytosıs in a case with lymhphoma

Semra Paydas Evren Yetisir Cem Mirili Elcin Ismayilov Mahmut Buyuksimsek Ali Ogul
Emine Kilic Bagir Melek Ergin

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 22, 2018


Dynamic changes in PD-1 and PD-L1 expressions in cases with Hodgkin Lymphoma

Semra Paydas Emine Kilic Bagir Melek Ergin

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 23, 2018


Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in strawberries in Greece and performance evaluation of the culture media

Agni Hadjilouka Valia Koubou Spiros Paramithiotis Marios Mataragas Eleftherios H. Drosinos

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 25, 2018


How calculating the true volume of blood loss on the background of the physiological loss of liquids in practice

Andrey Belousov Elena Malygon Vadim Yavorskiy

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 26, 2018


Online collection of Patient Reported Outcome Measures: an effective method for follow-up of benign surgery

Jan H. Koetje MD PhD Gooitzen M. Van Dam MD PhD Joep Dille Vincent B. Nieuwenhuijs MD PhD

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 30, 2018


The Relationship between stress and negative emotion: The Mediating role of rumination

Jiaxuan Du Jiali Huang Yuanyuan An Wei Xu

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 31, 2018


Volume 3

Measuring procalcitonin (PCT) levels: a pilot study in early diagnosis of patients affected by ureterocutaneostomy infection

Dante Di Domenico Manuela Pane Raffaele Vitale Michele Barbieri Domenico Prezioso

Short Communication-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 12, 2017


Cytogenetic effects by newly synthesized antineoplastic steroidal alkylators in cultured human lymphocytes

Mourelatos C Kareli D Dafa E Argyraki M Koutsourea A Papakonstantinou I Fousteris M Pairas G
Nikolaropoulos S Lialiaris Th S Mourelatos D

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 26, 2017


Betrixaban: An Oral Factor Xa Inhibitor

Ohoud Almalki

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 26, 2017


Mesenchymal stem cells for Glenoid chondral lesions: An exceptional use

Vanessa Valim Annelise Pezzi Bruna Amorin Bruna Zambonato Álvaro Laureano Maria Aparecida Lima da Silva Alice Dahmer Filipe Sehn João L. Ellera Gomes Lucia Silla

Study Protocol-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 29, 2017


Rescue of sorafenib-pretreated advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with tamoxifen

Margaret Ottaviano Giovannella Palmieri Vincenzo Damiano Marianna Tortora Liliana Montella

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 29, 2017


Dual bronchodilator therapy: A review

Alcibey Alvarado

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 29, 2017


Influence of the kappa-opioid agonist RU-1205 compound in wide spread of doses on the effects of neuromediator analyzers: Bechavioral testing

Roman A. Litvinov Natalya V. Eliseeva Olesya Yu. Grechko Alexander A. Spasov

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 29, 2017


Editorial on “Is there a benefit of mechanical thrombectomy in patients with large stroke (DWI-ASPECTS= 5)?”

Jan Gralla Urs Fischer

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

July 13, 2017


Resolution of post burn hypo pigmentation and scar by homeopathic medicines

Swami Shraddhamayananda

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

July 27, 2017


Influence of Weekday of Surgery on Operative Complications. An Analysis of 25.000 Surgical Procedures

Verena Müller Julia Strauchmann Shadi Katou Johann Pratschke Corinna Langelotz

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

September 08, 2017


Case report of haematometra and cervico-isthmic adhesions following caesarean section in a resource-low setting

Paul Nkemtendong Tolefac Nana Njamen Theophile Charlotte Nguefack Tchente Eugene Yeika Bongoe Adamo Eugene Belley Priso

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

September 10, 2017


Domiciliary Oxygen: Facts and fallacies

Alcibey Alvarado

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

September 23, 2017


Long-term overall survival of endometrial carcinoma patients treated with high dose-rate brachytherapy with Norman-Simon catheters, vaginal brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy

Jeno Palvolgyi Kofi Agyemang-Prempeh

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

September 28, 2017


Large calcified cephalohematoma- A case report

Sarkar S Dey Avijit Mazumder U Hossen MK Saha S Sazib SMF

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

September 29, 2017


Dual epidemics of deaths by heroin overdose and suicide

Alen J Salerian

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

June 02, 2017


Treatment of hypertension: mono-therapy versus [Zofenopril and Hydrochlorothiazide] combined therapy: A review

Francesco Crespi

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

June 05, 2017


Reversing autism: Longitudinal data from an ongoing autism intervention study

Steven Evans Debra Jude Fuller

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

June 09, 2017


Changing microbiology of indwelling venous catheter related infection

Lokesh Shahani Chad Noggle Nancy Khardori

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

June 12, 2017


Drop-The-Loser: A practical bayesian adaptive design for a clinical trial of citalopram for cocaine use disorder

Nuvan S. Rathnayaka Jessica Vincent F. Gerard Moeller Joy M. Schmitz Charles E. Green

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

June 14, 2017


Adrenocortical carcinoma in a Ghanaian girl: Report of a case

Emmanuel Ameyaw Abiboye Cheduko Yifieyeh Serwah Bonsu Asafo-Agyei Awuah Baffour Akosua Serwah Hemeng

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

June 22, 2017


Stomatocytosis and spherocytosis in a patient with novel heterozygous novel mutation in the erythrocyte protein 4.2 gene and parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease

Anant Vatsayan Jordan Fenner Agne Petrosiute

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

June 22, 2017


Iatrogenic onycholysis

Zaouri H Zaouri H Elmakrini N Squalli A Berbich L Senouci K

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

March 27, 2017


Misdiagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis as pelvic inflammatory disease in a Ghanaian teenager: A case report

Emmanuel Ameyaw Nana Ama Barnes Serwah Bonsu Asafo-Agyei April Deborah Amakye Ansah

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 29, 2017


Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva clinically mimicking a diabetic ulcer: A potential diagnostic pitfall

Jessian L Munoz Christopher G. Przybycin Oluwatosin Jaiyeoba Goje

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 17, 2017


HDFx: A novel biologic immunomodulator may have the potential to prevent bacteria in space from becoming aggressively infectious and lethal

Burton M. Altura Asefa Gebrewold Anthony Carella Bella T. Altura

Short Communication-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 22, 2017


Botulinum toxin injection following deep brain stimulation in generalized dystonia

Barbara I. Karp Vesper Fe Marie Llaneza Ramos Katharine Alter Codrin Lungu

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 26, 2017


Unusual presentations of chemotherapy induced acral erythema after high dose methotrexate: Case series

Anant Vatsayan Hasan Hashem Kord Honda Rachel Egler Robin Norris

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 26, 2017


Cytotoxic or cytoprotective chaperones: An unfolded biology in oral lesions

Bina Kashyap Sridhar Reddy P Jagadish Prasad Rajguru

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 29, 2017


Traumatic flail chest injuries and the benefits of epidural analgesia

Alhadhrami B Babsail A Elhusseini M Alhabboubi M Chughtai T

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 24, 2017


Congenital icthyosis: A case report

Rajesh Pandey

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 26, 2017


Bronchiolitis in adult: A review

Alcibey Alvarado Isabel Arce

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

February 06, 2017


Out-of-hospital open-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation after cardiac arrest in cases of blunt chest or abdominal trauma: A consecutive series of 40 cases

Wen-Hai Liu Xu-Dong Wang Lian-Fu Wang Wei Liu Ting Liu Jia-Wei Liu Hai-Bing Zhang Chun-Yi Chiang

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

March 03, 2017


Can infections cause Alzheimer’s disease?

Elliott Asher Satesh Bidaisee

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

March 10, 2017


Cabergoline use for cushing’s disease during pregnancy: Mini review

Mussa Almalki

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

March 15, 2017


Genetic polymorphism and risk of venous thromboembolism among patients with endometrial hyperplasia

Dobrokhotova YE Lapina IA Ozolinya LA Saprykina LV Grishin II Gavrilov MV Yakubova K Ramazanova A

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

March 16, 2017


Does a second course of intravesical BCG benefit nonresponders to induction BCG therapy?

Harry Herr

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 25, 2016


Treatment of onychomycosis with dilute topical povidone-iodine in a dimethylsulfoxide solvent system

Capriotti K Stewart, KP Pelletier JP Capriotti J

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 25, 2016


Antioxidants in respiratory diseases: Basic science research and therapeutic alternatives

Alcibey Alvarado Isabel Arce

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

December 26, 2016


Sagittal sinus thrombosis: An unusual presentation of tubercular adenitis

Tahir Majeed Fahad Shafi Aadil Bashir Rather Abid Kuchay and Sahil Hassan

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 02, 2017


Arguments to develop TRPV1 antagonist in neuropathic pain. Lessons for drug development

Jan M Keppel Hesselink

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 04, 2017


Correction of a coronary artery aneurysm with a polytetrafluoroethylene-Covered stent: Case report

Fazila-Tun-Nesa Malik Mir Nesaruddin Ahmed Md. Kalimuddin Nazir Ahmed Mohammad Badiuzzaman Ashok Dutta Dhiman Banik Kabiruzzaman Habibur Rahman Tawfiq Shahriar Huq Md. Forhad Jamal

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 10, 2017


Hepatocellular Carcinoma In Morocco

Firwana M Aomari A Rahaoui A Afifi R Benelbarhdadi I Ajana FZ Essaid AE

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

January 23, 2017


Volume 2

Therapeutic exploratory trials’ in drug development – Are parallel group designs useful?

Akosua Adom Agyeman Richard Ofori-Asenso

Commentary Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 21, 2016


Implementation and challenges of test, treat and track (T3) strategy for malaria case management in children under five years in the Bongo District, Ghana

Shiela Akanteele Agandaa Margaret Kweku Eric Agboli Mohamed Takase Wisdom Takramah Elvis Tarkang John Gyapong

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 24, 2016


Euphoria from drinking alcoholic beverages may be due to reversible constriction of cerebral blood vessels: potential roles of unrecognized ionized hypomagnesemia, and release of ceramides and platelet-activating factor

Burton M. Altura Aimin Zhang Nilank C. Shah Gatha J. Shah Asefa Gebrewold Bella T. Altura

Short Communication-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 14, 2016


Bilateral macular neurosensory retinal detachment secondary to systemic Dabrafenib and Trametinib therapy

Kevin J. Talbot Gibran Khurshid

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 14, 2016


Total laparoscopic billroth-1(Distal) gastrectomy compare(TLDG) To open billroth-1 gastrectomy(ODG) in early gastric cancer

Alhadhrami B Kinoshita T Gotohda N Kato Y Shibasaki H Tkahashi S Konishi M

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 14, 2016


Randomized observational multicenter study to assess the efficacy and safety of the association of Fortigel (10 Gr) and Fucoidan (100 Mg) in patients with Gonarthrosis

Martin-Martin LS Pierluigi B La Medica C Melis G Nuvoli G Piccinni V Pietrapertosa M Vincenti B Vinicola V

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 14, 2016


Can gravitational waves predispose neuro-cardiovascular circadian rhythms?

Singh RB Maria Abramova Sergey Chibisov Sergey Shastun Rie Horiuchi Toru Takahashi

Short Communication-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 14, 2016


Client satisfaction to antiretroviral treatment services and associated factors among clients attending ART clinics in Hossana Town, Southern Ethiopia

Feleke Doyore Beminet Moges

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 19, 2016


Adenopathy and fibrosis in thoracic sarcoidosis occurring concurrently-A rare presentation

Rajul Rastogi Prabhat Kumar Bhagat Yuktika Gupta Pankaj Kumar Das Mohini Choudhary Sagar Parashar Vijai Pratap

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

September 30, 2016


Main problems associated with obtaining informed consent of cardiologic patients for participation in scientific studies: Focus on acute care

Beata Morawiec Damian Kawecki Lesław Niebrój

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 07, 2016


Wells syndrome associated with gastrointestinal lymphoma

Zaouri H El Makrini N Berbich L Senouci K Hassam B

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 10, 2016


A few important clinical trials in cardiac surgery, which have influenced management

Mohd Shahbaaz Khan

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 13, 2016


Study of depressive disorders in the patients infected by HIV

Katabwa Kabongo J Mutombo V Tshibangu Manyonga E Ntambwe Mwembo A Wembonyama S Mukendi Kavulu R

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 17, 2016


Anaferon, released-active from of antibodies to interferon-gamma, as an effective medicine for treatment and prophylaxis of a wide spectrum of infections

Tarasov SA Kachanova MV Gorbunov EA Zabolotneva JA Ertuzun IA Belopolskaya MV Borodavkina MV Dugina JL Epstein OI

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 19, 2016


Adult onset still's disease presenting as recurrent fever with ARDS

Andrey Manov Asha ThomasPrabhakaran P GopalakrishnanSmita Subramaniam

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 20, 2016


Evidence of Fab fragment gene in an invertebrate: The sea star Asterias rubens

Michel Leclerc Nicolas Kresdorn

Short Communication-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

September 16, 2016


Herpes zoster case report

Hajar O Ali Yousif I Eltohami Amal H Abuaffan Shiraz Altigani

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

September 19, 2016


Factors affecting retention and compliance in a longitudinal study of connected, low income, urban, primiparous mothers

Amanda R. Beering Hui SunShelby E. Cummings Jennifer S. Crodian Shelley D. Dowden Lingsong Zhang David M. Haas Theresa M. Casey Azza Ahmed

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

September 26, 2016


A travel clinic’s role in reducing measles and pertussis in the community

Alwyn Rapose

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

September 28, 2016


Antibody-secreting plasma cells with unique CD5+IgG+CD21lo phenotype developed in humanized NOG mice

Yoshie Kametani Shin Shimada Shuhya Mori Mika Kojima Shino Ohshima Kazutaka Kitaura Takaji MatsutaniYoshinori Okada Takashi Yahata Ryoji Ito Ikumi Katano Hiroshi Suemizu Ryuji Suzuki Mamoru Ito Sonoko Habu Kiyoshi Ando

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 13, 2016


Immunotherapy and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

Timothy Allen Gayathri Balasubramanian

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

June 25, 2016


Immunotherapy and target therapy in non-hodgkin lymphoma

Timothy Allen Alaa Ahmed Shuhya Mori Ghazaleh Shoja E Razavi Abdullateef Al-Hadeethi

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

June 25, 2016


Early post-operative outcomes using the game ready cooling compression system as part of an enhanced recovery protocol in primary total knee arthroplasty-A randomised controlled trial

V Sampath Kumar G Pavlou J Oakley R Smith T N Board

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

June 27, 2016


Immunotherapy and essential thrombocythemia

Nepton Sheik Khoni Himakshi Sharma

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

June 30, 2016


T-cell immunomodulatory protein in the sea star Asterias rubens: Genomic studies

Michel Leclerc

Short Communication-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 25, 2016


Evidence of low affinity immunoglobulin epsilon Fc receptor gene in an invertebrate: The sea star Asterias rubens

Michel Leclerc Nicolas Kresdorn

Short Communication-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 25, 2016


Possible treatment of hypoxic fetal brain damage without cesarean section

Kazuo Maeda Masaji Utsu

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 29, 2016


The spread of melanoma to the pericardium: Brief history of cellular interest

Wilson I. B. Onuigbo

Opinion Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 30, 2016

Is alzheimer’s disease a fiction?

Fred C. C. Peng

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

February 16, 2016


Sealed posterior perforated duodenal ulcer revealed by a subphrenic abscess

I. Kassegne EK. Sorsy M. Traore KA Sakiye KG. Azialey C. Elias K. Raynaud

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

February 21, 2016


Rectosigmoid prolapse complicated with ileal and sigmoid necrosis in a 4-year-old child

I Kassegne KA Sakiye KG Azialey F Alassani KK Kanassoua AK Amavi K adabra B Tchangai ED Dosseh

Case Report-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

February 21, 2016


Non-small cell lung cancer and non-traditional management: A review

Roy Sebastian Tony Brown

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

February 24, 2016


THE Asterias rubens complement system: Comparisons with lower vertebrates

Michel Leclerc Nicolas Kresdorn

Short Communication-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

February 29, 2016


Qigong among older adults: a global review

XinQi Dong Stephanie Bergren

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

February 29, 2016

Volume 1

Swine endothelial progenitor cell culture

Hong-Jian Shi You-Hua Huang Qian Xu Tao Shen Jian-Ke Li Jing-Yu Sheng

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 26, 2015


Efficacy and Examination of an Alkaline Buffered Commercial Creatine Supplement- Kre-Alkalyn®, in Athletes

Jeff Golini

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

December 15, 2015


Antiproteinase therapy of influenza virus

V. A. Divocha

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

December 18, 2015


Factors related to pressure ulcer development with diabetic neuropathy

Suhair Shahwan

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

December 21, 2015

The attitudes and degree of awareness about MERS-CoV among Saudis of different ages

Shafi Hussain M Alqahtani Muteb Nasser R Aldawsari

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 29, 2015


Food elimination diet among college students affecting physical performance and learning

Susan Stockton

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

November 15, 2015


Usage of Kernel K-Means and DBSCAN cluster algorıthms in health studies:An application

Özge Pasin Handan Ankarali

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 23, 2015


The impact of orthodontic treatment needs related to dental health on the oral health-related quality of life of dental students

Fatima A. Elmahgoub Amal H. Abuaffan

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 23, 2015


The Bright side isn't that bright: HIV treatment optimism as a case of optimistic bias

Gidi Rubinstein

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 24, 2015


Clinical and histopathological profile of basal cell carcinomas of the head and neck: An analysis of 95 cases

Yasemin Yuyucu Karabulut

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

October 26, 2015

Current barriers for developing clinical research in Latin America: A cross-sectional survey of medical oncologists

Henry L. Gómez Joseph A. Pinto Carlos Castañeda Carlos S. Vallejos

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 04, 2015


Estriol review: Clinical applications and potential biomedical importance

Nadia Falah John Torday Sara K. Quinney David M. Haas

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

May 29, 2015


Effect of goshajinkigan, a Japanese herbal medicine, on the plasma neuropeptides in humans

Yuhki Sato Ryosuke Tatsuta Yosuke Suzuki Hiroki Itoh

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 01, 2015


Effects of a kindergarten-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles: Quasi experimental study in Sousse, Tunisia

Maatoug Jihene Hmad Sonia Bhiri Sana Zammit Nawel Harrabi Imed Boughammoura Lamia Ghannem Hassen

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 04, 2015


A theoretical protocol of all-night EEG in polysomnography (PSG) as a preparation and precaution for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the elderly subjects aged 65 years and over

Bing H. Tang

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 11, 2015


A comparison of patient reported outcome measures following total knee replacement with either the Depuy Synthes AttuneTM or Depuy Synthes PFCTM total knee replacement systems: A single blinded randomised controlled trial study protocol

S Panchani S Panchani A K Gambhir G Pavlou H Wynn Jones T N Board

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

August 29, 2015


Initial experience: The use of novel balloon expandable sheaths with the impella 2.5L catheter during high risk percutaneous coronary intervention

James Nguyen Umang Shah Rahul Bose Jason Yoho Marvin Eng Steven R. Bailey Anand Prasad

Retrospective Description-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 04, 2015


Effect of maternal cigarette smoking on newborn iron stores

Irina B. Pateva Elizabeth H. Kerling Manju Reddy Dan Chen Susan E. Carlson Jakica Tancabelic

Research Article -Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 08, 2015


Scarf osteotomy in tailor’s bunion: A review

Marco Caforio Pietro Maniscalco Patrizia Mantelli Luigi Bisogno

Review Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 10, 2015


What can Phase I clinical trials tell us about quality of life? A pilot study (MC0115)

Pamela J Atherton Daniel W Szydlo Charles Erlichman Jeff A Sloan

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 17, 2015


Health literacy predicts participant understanding of orally-presented informed consent information

Raymond L Ownby Amarilis Acevedo Kenneth Goodman Joshua Caballero Drenna Waldrop-Valverde5

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 19, 2015


Methods for trials of interventions to enhance patient adherence to medication prescriptions, based on a systematic review of recent randomized trials

Haynes RB1 Jeffery RA Keepanasseril A Wilczynski NL Navarro-Ruan T Mustafa RA Nieuwlaat R Patient Adherence Review (PAR) Team5

Research Article-Clinical Research and Trials (CRT)

April 29, 2015


External Databases & Indexes


  • WorldCat
  • Crossref
  • Road
  • Google scholar
  • Pubmed*
  • Publons

Submit Manuscript


Clinical trials journal welcomes direct submissions of manuscripts from authors. You can submit your manuscript to : submissions@oatext.com alternatively to editor.crt@oatext.com

For Authors


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In general the Manuscripts are classified in to following groups based on the criteria noted below. The author(s) are encouraged to request a particular classification upon submitting (please include this in the cover letter); however the Editor and the Associate Editor retain the right to classify the manuscript as they see fit, and it should be understood by the authors that this process is subjective to some degree. The chosen classification will appear in the printed manuscript above the manuscript title.

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  • Typically shorter than one page

2. Letter to the Editor

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  • Supports, refutes, or adds relevant information related to a previously published article
  • Authors correcting their own work or responding to a critique of their article by a reader(s)
  • An abstract is not required.
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  • The letter will undergo peer-review similar to other articles.

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OA Text also welcomes Special Issues, a set of related articles addressing themes or projects of broad interest, typically 4–10 articles in each group, usually including a synthesizing Commentary. Special Issues may fall within a single knowledge domain or be cross-listed under two or more domains; in either case, a single Editor-in-Chief will be responsible for the entire Special Feature. For more information, see our Special Issues informational page.

For detailed information on structure and formatting for each article type, please see our Manuscript Preparation guidelines.

Supporting material that cannot be included, and which is not essential for inclusion, in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader. It should not be essential to understand the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that are additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content.

We encourage authors to include supplementary information with their submissions whenever appropriate; for example, when the amount of material is too great to warrant inclusion in the main body of the paper, or when the material is in a format that cannot be represented in print (i.e. audio, video, three-dimensional representations, and other rich media as well as additional figures and tables). Supplemental material provides additional information that enhances the main text and is directly referenced within the text, but is not critical to its assertions. Please note that atomic co-ordinates used to create molecular models described in a manuscript, unless deposited in a publicly available database, must be made available as Supplementary data.

Although we do not limit the number or type of supplemental material items authors may include, we do require that they provide a relevant and useful expansion of the article, and that they are as well described as are figures and tables included within the body of the article. Good metadata of this material are key to discoverability and usefulness.

For detailed information on formatting and submitting supplementary information, please see our guidelines on Supplemental Material & Data.

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An inherent principle of publication is that others should be able to replicate and build upon the authors’ published claims. Therefore, we require that all major Data sets must be made freely available to readers from the date of publication, and must be provided to editors and peer-reviewers at submission, for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript, unless there are clear reasons to restrict access. Datasets should be archived in an appropriate, subject-specific public archive, or in an institutional repository. The Directory of Open Access Repositoriesprovides a searchable list of over 2,000 OA repositories.

For more information, please see our guidelines on Supplemental Material & Data.

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Submission Components

Manuscripts should be submitted by one of the author, who is listed in the manuscript while submitting the manuscript files through EMS, make sure your files are in Word or PDF (.pdf, .doc, .docx, .rtf) format.

Alternatively you can send it to our E-mail address:submission@oatext.com

Submitted manuscripts should typically include the following elements:

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Authors are encouraged to provide the names and contact information for 3–5 external reviewers, though Associate Editors are not obligated to use these suggestions. Authors may also indicate researchers whom they feel should not review the submission.

For more information, please see our guidelines on Manuscript Preparation.

The Review Process

Each of OA Text journals are led by an Editor-in-Chief and supported by an international Board of Associate Editors, comprised of respected researchers in relevant fields. We are committed to providing Elementa authors with a fair and timely review process, constructive feedback, and a supportive environment. We publish articles that are methodologically sound, that are worthy of inclusion in the scholarly record, and that further research and discourse in the relevant field of study.

Our goal is to make initial decisions on submissions within 21 calendar days. After acceptance, the manuscript and supporting files will be immediately processed for publication, a process taking approximately 10 business days, if all supporting files are in order.

Our review process follows these steps:

  • All manuscripts submitted to OA Text Journals are received by the Editorial Assistant who examines all files including cover letter, text files, images and figures. If the files meet the technical and formatting of OA Text, as given in the Instructions for Authors, authors are sent an acknowledgement of the manuscript along with a Manuscript ID number.
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  • After the files pass the technical and formatting requirements, the manuscript is assigned to a Section Editor or a member of the Editorial Board.
  • The Editor reviews the manuscript and returns the manuscripts along with the comments to the Editorial Assistant or Editorial Secretary. The editorial process gives the editors the authority to reject any manuscript, if it doesn’t not meet the scientific publishing standards or is out of scope of the journal.
  • Based on the comments of the Editor the manuscript is sent for the external peer review. The manuscript is usually sent to two to four expert peer reviewers. The peer reviewer's identities are kept confidential to ensure a fair and unbiased review of every manuscript.
  • The pertinent Editor-in-Chief will review submissions to identify those that are appropriate for full review, and assign an Associate Editor to manage the review process.
  • The Associate Editor will select reviewers, manage the review process, and will make one of the following publication recommendations to the Editor-in-Chief:
    • Accept without revision;
    • Invite author(s) to revise the submission to address specific but relatively minor concerns;
    • Invite author(s) to revise the submission to address moderate to major concerns;
    • Reject, but indicate to the author(s) that further work might justify a resubmission; or
    • Reject outright.
  • If a revision is recommended, the Editorial Assistant will include, with her or his review, a short paragraph summarizing the most important issues raised by the reviewers for the author(s) to address and ask the author(s) to include a Response to Reviewers with their revision. In some cases the Editorial Assistant may seek further review from the original or other reviewers.
  • The Editor-in-Chief will make the ultimate decision regarding publication, and communicate directly with the corresponding author on the results of the review process.
  • After acceptance, a Production Editor will perform a technical audit of the final manuscript and supporting files, to ensure that the submission will move through the production process smoothly.
  • After the acceptance of the manuscript, it may be edited for grammar, punctuation, style and accuracy. An edited, pre-print, proof of the manuscript with all figures, table and charts included, is sent to the corresponding author for approval. The proof will be sent as a PDF file. The authors will also be sent a proof corrections form, which the authors can use to submit any changes required in the manuscript. Please note that at this stage only the type-setting like incorrect punctuation will be corrected. It will not be possible to make any significant changes to the text or add or delete figures. The proof need to be returned to the Editorial Office within three days (72 hours).
  • After the correction proofs are received by the Editorial Office, the final version of the manuscript is prepared for publication. During preparation for publication, HTML, PDF, XML and other formats of the manuscript are prepared. After receiving page proofs, the average time to publication is approximately four weeks. All manuscripts are published in HTML and PDF formats.

Clinical Research and Trials is an Open Access journal and we do not charge the end user when accessing a manuscript or any article. This allows the scientific community to view, download, distribution of an article in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited, under the term of "Creative Commons Attribution License". In line with other open access journals we provide a flat fee submission structure on the acceptance of a peer-reviewed article which covers in part the entirety of the publication pathway (the article processing charge). The process includes our maintenance, submission and peer review systems and international editing, publication and submission to global indexing and tracking organisations and archiving to allow instant access to the whole article and associated supplementary documents. We also have to ensure enough investment to secure a sustainable model which ethically, legally and financially stable.

The publication charges for Clinical Research and Trials are GBP 2660.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Why are your charges set at these levels?

All articles published in OA Text are open access. Open Access publishing implies that all readers, anywhere in the world, are allowed unrestricted to full text of articles, immediately on publication in OA Text Journals. The Article Publication Charges pay for the editorial and production costs of the journal, for hosting the website, publishing articles online, preparing HTML , PDF and XML versions of the articles and submitting the articles in electronic citation database like CrossRef.

Our financial goals are to:

  • Recover capitalization costs;
  • Produce sufficient revenue to allow for a sustainable and scalable publishing program, under continuous development;
  • Bend the publication-charge cost downward over time.

Who will pay the APC?

Corresponding author or Co-authors has to make the payment on acceptance of the article.

When should I pay?

Corresponding author or the paying institutions should arrange for the payment once they are notified regarding acceptance of the article. APC is exempted for cases in which a wavier agreement has been made in-prior to submission.

*We request an immediate attention towards the payment as the articles will not be published unless the charges have been paid.

How do I pay?

Authors or institutions can make payments by two modes as per their convenience.

  1. Wire/Bank transfer
  2. Card payment

Note: No taxes are included in this charge, taxes will be applicable as per the policies of the country of the payee. Additional transaction charges may be levied on the author.

Can I be eligible for wavier on APC?

The waiver request will be considered on a case-by-case basis, and will be provided accordingly.

*The Waiver requests must be made during the submission process and will not be accepted after  processing of the manuscript.

Do I have to pay if my manuscript is rejected?

No, Article processing charges will not be applicable for articles rejected by the Editorial office.

Withdrawal Charges

Are reprints of my article included in the article processing charges (APCs)?

No, Article processing charges (APCs) do not include the charges for the reprints. Reprints facility is optional and should be order separately.

Open Access Text is committed to providing high quality articles and uphold the publication ethics to advance the intellectual agenda of science. We expect our authors to comply with, best practice in publication ethics as well as in quality of their articles.

Few of the authors request withdrawal of manuscript from the publication process after submission or after publication. In some instances the request for withdrawal is made when the manuscript is only a few days away from publication in the journal. This may cause the time waste by the editors, reviewers and the editorial staff.

To evade gratuitous withdrawal of manuscripts OA text declared the below withdrawal policy. The corresponding author or co authors should address the below statement before sending a request for withdrawal.

  • All authors include corresponding and co authors should confirm the number of authors, authorship, approval and integrity of the manuscript before submission. In case of any differences of opinion, address the concerns of all the authors before submitting the manuscript for publication.
  • Research students or Researchers should take prior permission from their guides and professors before sending/submitting their manuscripts in OA text journals.
  • Authors should follow the publication ethics (details are included in our Publication ethics page: http://www.oatext.com/PublicationEthics.php)
  • Manuscript is appropriately withdrawn from any previous publisher (if submitted).
  • It is unacceptable to withdraw a manuscript  from a journal because it is being accepted by another journal.
  • Before submitting the manuscript authors should carefully check the facts and data presented in the manuscripts are accurate and error-free.
  • All authors need agree for publishing the articles on the specific journal before submission.

Unethical withdrawal

Advanced stage in the editorial process, when peer reviews were near completion was unacceptable unless there are compelling reasons.

If the author withdraws a manuscript after publication, the article publication charges, if paid by the authors, will not be refunded.

If the authors do not reply to communication from the editorial office, even after multiple reminders, at any stage of the publication process; OA text Journals holds all rights to disclose the conduct of the authors and content of the manuscript without further approval from the authors, and cannot be held responsible for the consequences arising from it.

Withdrawal of a manuscript will be permitted only for the most compelling and unavoidable reasons. For withdrawal of a manuscript authors need to submit an "Article withdrawal Form", signed by all authors mentioning the reason for withdrawal to the Editorial Office. The form is available from the editorial office of the journal. Authors must not assume that their manuscript has been withdrawn until they have received appropriate notification to this effect from the editorial office.

In a case where a manuscript has taken more than six months time for review process, that allows the author to withdraw manuscript without paying any charges.

Manuscript withdrawal charges

The author is allowed to withdraw the manuscript without paying any withdrawal penalty, if the author(s) requests a withdrawal of manuscript, within 48 hours of submission.

If the author(s) requests a withdrawal of manuscript, after the peer review process or in the production stage (Early Release or Ahead of publishing) or published online; then authors need to make a withdrawal penalty.

OA text Journal Editorial Office will provide the corresponding author a formal letter of Manuscript Withdrawal. Withdrawal of manuscripts is only allowed after withdrawal penalty has been fully paid to the OA text Editorial Office.

As per the policy, we declare that the withdrawal charges are applicable in case of withdrawal.

Withdrawal form

If the author wish to withdraw paper from a journal, author needs to submit an " Article withdrawal Form" signed by all authors (or) the corresponding author of the manuscript stating the reasons for manuscript withdrawal. The form is available from the Editorial Office of the journal.

Submission Instructions

General Instructions for Figures

  • Include relevant clinical, radiological and pathological images with the manuscript to give it a visual accept and increase the impact of your work on the readers.
  • The following file formats are accepted for figures submitted to OA Text: JPEG, PNG, TIFF, BMP, GIF, and Power Point
  • Make all effort to preserve the anonymity of the patients. if photographs of an individual is used in which a person can be identified, written informed consent must be obtained and submitted to the Editorial Office. This permission is separate from the permission taken from the patient to publish the case.
  • If you include text or figures that have been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission is separate from the permission taken from the patient to publish the case.
  • If you include text or figures that have been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s). All expenses for obtaining such permission will have to be paid by the authors(s). If you are unable to pay for obtaining permission to use previously published work, we suggest that you use other work available free to refer and cite in your manuscript.
  • Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text.
  • Mention the figure numbers in the text at the appropriate places in parenthesis before the punctuation marks. e.g. (Figure 1) or (Figure 1A, 2) or (Figure 1A, 1C, 3-5) or (Figures 1-3) or (Figures 1,4-6)
  • Do not include images in the main manuscript text file.
  • All figures should be provided as separate files.
  • Includecolor figures wherever possible.
  • The file name should include the figure number. Label file names as:Figure1, Figure2 etc. If multiple figures form a part of a sequence label them as Figure 1(A), Figure 1(B) etc.
  • Figure files should have a minimum of 300 pixels per inch (ppi) if in color or halftone, or at 1200 ppi if as line art. Digital scanned line drawings should have a minimum resolution of 800 dpi. Figures containing color should be in RGB (millions of colors), 8 bits per channel. No other color space is allowed, such as CMYK, indexed, or bitmap. Save grayscale or RGB files with a depth of 8 bits per channel, not 16.
  • Try to keep all images separate. You do not need to combine multiple images into a single image.
  • If it is necessary to combine multiple figures into one composite figure, figure parts should be denoted on the figure by uppercase letters (A, B, C etc.). Label each figure in the lower left hand corner (for Figure 1(A), label figure as 'A', for Figure 1(B), label figure as 'B',without quotes). Labels should not include the word'Figure'. The size of the letters should be large enough to be easily visible. Use font color so that letters contrast with the background. Keep letters of a consistent size in all the figures. You can use symbols, arrows or letters in the figures to indicate important areas or parts. Do not put the title of figures or explanations on the figure. Mention them in the figure legends.
  • If a figure has been published elsewhere, you will have to submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the materials at the time of submitting the Author Agreement Form.
  • Please provide figure legends on a separate page with Arabic numerals corresponding to the figures.
  • The legend should be included in the manuscript text file immediately following the references.
  • Give a good description of the figure. When arrows, symbols or letter are used to identify parts of figure, identify and explain each one in the legend. Give the magnification and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.
  • Figure legend should begin with term 'Figure' followed by figure number (e.g. 'Figure 1').
  • Do not use any abbreviations unless their full forms are given (excluding common abbreviations such as names of antibodies.)
  • Text within a figure should be Arial, Times, and/or Symbol 6-12 point to ensure legibility. EPS text in other fonts may be lost or render improperly, so should be converted to outlines. Do not include author names, article title, or figure number/title/caption within figure files.
  • Create figures with a white background. Figures with a transparent background may not display well online.
  • Figures should be cropped to minimize surrounding white space. A 2-point white space border around each figure is recommended to prevent inadvertent cropping of content at layout.
  • TIFF files with multiple layers are not acceptable. Figures with a single layer named “layer 1” or “layer 0” are in fact “layered.” Please provide a flattened version of any multiply layered file.
  • If you use excel to generate your graph, avoid 3D, crowded axes, colored background, strong grid etc.. Use Tahoma font (size 10 maximum) for all items in your graphs (Title, legend, axes etc..). Expand your Excel graph to obtain a large image, copy and paste it in Paint (Microsoft Paint), crop any white border and save the image as PNG or JPEG. Submit this image for your manuscript
  • If you plan on submitting a stereogram as one of your figures, make sure this is clearly mentioned in the caption for the figure within the manuscript. Stereograms must be sized so that the centers of each of these images are 63 mm apart. Make sure that the stereogram figure is at the size you would like them to display.
  • The journal reserves the right to modify, crop, rotate, reduce, or enlarge the photographs to an acceptable size.

Table Preparation

  • The table numbers should be cited at the relevant places in the text in parenthesis after the punctuation mark .e.g. (Table 1) or (Tables 1-4) or (Tables 1,3,6-8).
  • We impose no limit on the number of tables submitted, but we do require that all tables—main or supplemental—be well described. Good metadata are key to discoverability and usefulness.
  • Each table should be numbered in the order of first citation in the text, using Arabic numerals, e.g. Table 1.
  • You will need to send your original, editable files (e.g. in Microsoft Word or Excel). This will reduce the likelihood of errors being introduced during production of your article.
  • Non-editable files (e.g. JPEG or TIFF images, or images of text boxes in PowerPoint) are not suitable formats but can be included in addition to the editable files for reference.
  • Each table should appear on separate page.
  • A title for every table which summarizes the whole table must be given above the table.
  • Please present table titles separately for each table, rather than including them as the first row of the table. Table notes should be separate from the titles and included underneath the table to which they apply.
  • Tables should present new information rather than duplicating what is in the text. Readers should be able to interpret the table without reference to the text.
  • Tables should be self-explanatory and not duplicate the data presented in figures.
  • Tables do not have strict dimension requirements. However, some wide tables may be printed sideways in the PDF version of the article. Very large tables may span more than one page in the PDF.
  • When submitting multiple tables, consistency in presentation is advised where possible.
  • Kindly prepare tables using the table function of word processing program like Microsoft Word. Do not use spaces or table for making tables.
  • Charts should be sent as Excel or PowerPoint files.
  • Place explanations, comments and full form of non-standard abbreviations in footnotes below each table.
  • If some materials have been taken from previously published literature, give the reference at the end of table caption, and include the citation in the list of references at appropriate places.
  • Please note that color, shading, vertical rules, and other cell borders are not compatible with our publishing requirements. Where necessary please use notes, italics, or bold text for emphasis with accompanying footnotes explaining their significance.
  • Where superscript notes are used, the letters should follow alphabetical order from the top left of the table to the bottom right. All statistical significance notes should be represented in the table, or deleted. Please also add notes explaining any acronyms or abbreviations in table titles or column headings.
  • When representing information numerically, use as many decimal places as is appropriate for your purposes. This number should be consistent throughout the column, or table if possible.
  • The text in your table will be copy-edited to match the style of the journal.
  • Refer to each table in the text.
  • If you are sending tables in a separate file, insert a note in the text indicating the preferred location for each table, e.g. [t]Table 1 near here[/t].
  • Supplemental tables referenced within the text, but not integrated into the PDF version of the article. Supplemental material provides readers with additional information that enhances the main text but is not critical to its assertions. (For detailed information, please see Supplemental Material & Data.)

Requirements

Tables must

  • -be cell-based (e.g., created in Word with Tables tool (preferred), Rich Text, or LaTex;
  • -be editable (i.e., not a graphic object);
  • -be organized with rows and columns, not with returns, spaces, or tabs;
  • -have heading/subheading levels in separate columns;
  • -multi-part tables with varying numbers of columns or multiple footnote sections should be divided and renumbered as separate tables.

Tables must not:

  • -use returns or tabs within a cell;
  • -have color or shading;
  • -use lines, rules, or borders;
  • -contain spaces within cells to align text;
  • -have vertically merged cells (horizontally merged cells are fine);
  • -have inserted text boxes or pictures;
  • -contain tables within tables or cells within cells;
  • -include empty columns, rows, or cells to create spacing;
  • -include hyperlinked text.
  • If your submitted table contains any of these elements, they will be returned for adjustments.

Supplemental Material Submission Instructions

Deposit of Primary Data

Supplemental Material Submission Instructions

What to Submit as Supplemental Material

Supporting material that cannot be included, and which is not essential for inclusion, in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader. It should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that are additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Authors are encouraged to take advantage of the opportunity to submit Supplementary data whenever appropriate; for example, when the amount of material is too great to warrant inclusion in the main body of the paper, or when the material is in a format that cannot be represented in print (i.e. video clips or animated graphics). Please note that atomic co-ordinates used to create molecular models described in a manuscript, unless deposited in a publicly available database, must be made available as Supplementary data.

All material to be considered as Supplementary data must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. Please indicate clearly the material intended as Supplementary data upon submission. Also ensure that the Supplementary data is referred to in the main manuscript at an appropriate point in the text. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication. [Supporting material that has not been peer reviewed will not be published as Supplementary data (so will not be designated 'S' in the Table of Contents), but can be made available through a link to the author's home page, at the discretion of the Executive Editor handling the paper. The word 'Supplementary' must not be used to describe this material. Please use words such as 'Supporting material' or 'Additional material'.

Supplementary data should be submitted in a separate file(s), in its final form. Please note that Supplementary data will not be edited, so ensure that it is clearly and succinctly presented, and that the style of terms conforms to the rest of the paper. Also ensure that the presentation will work on any internet browser.

Note: Supplementary data is considered as published material and is regulated by the same copyright and permissions rules as the published article to which it belongs.

Metadata

Although we do not limit the number or type of Supplemental Material items authors may include, we do require that they provide a relevant and useful expansion of the article, and that they be as well described as are figures and tables included within the body of the article. Good metadata of this material are key to discoverability and usefulness. All Supplemental Material should include the following:

  • Type and number: Supplemental material can be named in almost any way, provided that the files are consistently named, and numbers are preceded by “S” and closed with a period. Examples:
    • Figure S1.
    • Table S1.
    • Text S1.
    • Video S1.
    • Animation S1.
    • Alternative Language Abstract S1.
  • Figures, Tables, Videos, Animations should be provided with titles should be no more than 15 words and set in bold type, using sentence case.
  • Supplemental material figures and tables should follow the requirements for main-text figures and tables (seeFigure PreparationandTable Preparation).
  • Other types of supplementary material files should include a caption of no more than 300 words should, describing the key message of the figure/video/animation in such a way that readers can interpret the file without referring to the text.
  • Citation In-Text

    All Supplementary data MUST be referred to in the main manuscript at an appropriate point in the text, just as main text figures and tables. This offers readers context and allows for seamless interlinking. Text citations should use the appropriate type and number designation (e.g., Video S1). Supplementary data should be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. Such data should consist of electronic files and should not merely be a link to another web site.

    Acceptable formats

    The supplementary data should preferably be saved as one single PDF file, including all text, figures, tables and legends. If this is not possible, a maximum of 10 files is acceptable to make up the supplementary data unit for the article.We prefer that Supplemental Material files not exceed 10MB. However, if that size limit results in a loss of quality (e.g., by making the dimensions smaller or compressing a movie in such a way as to compromise image quality), we can accept larger files.

    Text files

    Supplementary text should be submitted as text files in MS Word (.doc), HTML (.php) or RTF (.rtf) format.And should be mentioned appropriately in text.

    Spreadsheet files in MS Excel (.xls) or CSV format. Where possible, combine all tables into a single Excel workbook, saving individual tables on separate clearly labelled worksheets (tabs).

    Figures

    Supplemental figures should be submitted as separate tif, gif or jpg files at a minimum resolution of 300 ppi, just as with main figures (please see ourFigure Preparationsection for detailed instructions on figure preparation).

    Videos & audio clips

    For videos, please try to submit videos &audio clips of reasonable quality. We highly recommend videos to be submitted in MP4 formatand audio clips in mp3 format.Whatever format you use, videos must open and play in either QuickTime Player v. 7.6.2 or Windows Media Player v. 11.

    Authors who have video and/or audio clips that they wish to submit their article are strongly encouraged to include these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the multimedia content and noting in the body text where it should be placed with its associated caption.

    Help

    If you require further help or information regarding submission or preparation of Supplementary data, pleaseinfo@oatext.com

Deposit of Primary Data

An inherent principle of publication is that others should be able to replicate and build upon the authors' published claims. Therefore, a condition of publication in a OA Text journal is that authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to readers without undue qualifications. Any restrictions on the availability of materials or information must be disclosed to the editors at the time of submission. Any restrictions must also be disclosed in the submitted manuscript, including details of how readers can obtain materials and information. If materials are to be distributed by a for-profit company, this must be stated in the paper.

Data sets will be made freely available to readers from the date of publication, and must be provided to editors and peer-reviewers at submission, for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript.

For the following types of data set, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory. Accession numbers must be provided in the paper. Examples of appropriate public repositories are listed below.

Deposition of sequence and structural data

Sequence information, co-ordinates used to create molecular models described in a manuscript, and structural data must be submitted in electronic form, prior to acceptance, to the appropriate database for release no later than the date of publication of the corresponding article in the Journal. Deposition numbers and/or accession numbers provided by the database should be included in the manuscript and entered into the relevant boxes during online submission or communicated to the Executive Editor handling the manuscript as soon as received. In cases where there may be no appropriate database, authors must make their data available on request. Atomic co-ordinates may be included in the publication as supplementary material. Manuscripts will not be published until the Journal is in receipt of the deposition number.

For papers reporting novel nucleic acid sequences

Nucleic acid sequence information must be deposited with one of the three major collaborative databases (EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ). For sequences obtained from a public or private web site, it is the author's responsibility to ensure that any sequence used within the manuscript is deposited before publication. It is necessary to submit sequences to one database only since data are exchanged between EMBL, GenBank and DDBJ on a daily basis. New sequence names and their accession numbers should be listed at the beginning of the Materials and Methods section to aid searches by readers. In order to allow new methods of data search,NAR encourages authors to cite GenBank accession numbers when referring to established sequences within their manuscript.

For Illumina-type sequencing, authors are encouraged to submit raw Illumina data to the NCBI’s Sequence Read Archive, and to include corresponding accession numbers in the manuscript.

For papers reporting novel Macromolecular structures

Authors of papers describing structures of biological macromolecules must provide atomic coordinates and related experimental data (structure factor amplitudes/intensities for crystal structures, or restraints for NMR structures) upon request of editors for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript, if they are not already freely accessible in a publicly available and recognized database (for example,Protein DataBank,Uniprot,Nucleic Acids DatabaseorBiological Magnetic Resonance Databank). Electron microscopy-derived density maps and coordinate data must be deposited inEMDB.

Crystallographic data for small molecules

Manuscripts reporting new three-dimensional structures of small molecules from crystallographic analysis should include a .cif file and a structural figure with probability ellipsoids for publication as Supplementary Information. The structure factors for each structure should also be submitted. Both the strucure factors and the structural output must have been checked using the IUCR's CheckCIF routine, and a PDF copy of the output must be included at submission, together with a justification for any alerts reported. Crystallographic data for small molecules should be submitted to the Cambridge Structural Database and the deposition number referenced appropriately in the manuscript. Full access must be provided on publication.

Databases: The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) is appropriate for deposition of data on nucleosides, nucleotides and other small molecules.

A member site of theWorldwide Protein Data Bank:RCSB PDB,Protein Databank in Europe (PDBe),Protein Databank in Japan (PDBj), orBMRBis appropriate for deposition of data on proteins determined by X-ray crystallography and for all macromolecules determined by NMR methods.

The Nucleic Acid Database (NDB) is appropriate for atomic co-ordinate and structure factor data for crystal structures of nucleic acids. This can generally be handled by the Worldwide Protein Data Bank or RCSB Protein Data Bank described above.

NMR papers: Resonance assignments should be reported relative to DSS and not to HOD.

For papers reporting novel protein sequences

Protein sequences, which have been determined by direct sequencing of the protein, must be submitted toUniProt(i.e. TrEMBL, Swiss-Prot and PIR) using the interactive submission tool SPIN. Please note that they do not provide accession numbers, IN ADVANCE, for protein sequences that are the result of translation of nucleic acid sequences. These translations will forwarded automatically from the nucleotide sequence databases (EMBL/GebBank/DDBJ) and assigned UniProt accession numbers on incorporation into UniProt. Results from characterization experiments should also be submitted toUniProt: for novel sequences, these should be included with the sequence submission. Existing UniProt entries should also be updated. This can include information such as function, subcellular location, subunit, etc.

For papers reporting new ChIP-Seq data

New ChIP-Seq data must be deposited in GEO, with accession numbers at or before acceptance for publication.

Microarray data

All authors must comply with the'Minimal Information About a Microarray Experiment' (MIAME)guidelines published by the Microarray Gene Expression Data Society. NAR also requires submission of microarray data to the GEO or ArrayExpress databases, with accession numbers at or before acceptance for publication.

Quantitative PCR

Authors are encouraged to follow the'Minimal Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments' (MIQE)guidelines, if appropriate. The guidelines are published by the Real-Time PCR Data Markup Language Consortium and can be found athttp://www.rdml.org/miqe.php

Other datasets

In addition to the above-mentioned mandatory requirements for data submission to community-endorsed public databases, Nature journals strongly recommend deposition of other types of data sets into appropriate public repositories that are at an earlier stage of development. Examples of such repositories that facilitate sharing large data sets, some of which can offer the option of anonymous referee access to data before publication, include:

Manuscript Preparation

The manuscript preparation guidelines are adapted from those developed forInternational Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Careful attention to these guidelines will help ensure that your manuscript will move through the peer-review process smoothly and quickly.

Submissions to OA Text consist of the following components:

Reference Style Guide

We use Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (7th Edition, 2006) as our primary style guide and highly recommend that authors consult it.

The purpose of a reference list is to enable sources to be easily traced by another reader. Different types of publication require different amounts of information but there are certain common elements such as authorship, year of publication and title.

Any reference that is cited only in the tables or figures legends should be numbered according to the first identification of the table or figure in the main text in continuation with the sequence of citation numbering.

Place the reference immediately after the author name or if author name is not included in the sentence, at the end of the sentence after the punctuation mark.

Each reference must have a reference number. Reference should not be used in titles, headings or abstract. Use complete names for non-indexed journals

Avoid citing unpublished data or manuscripts, personal communications, websites, conference papers and non-peer reviewed publications. Avoid citing very old references.

The following guidelines, based on the CSE Manual, are intended to assist you in formatting references accurately and consistently.

Basic Reference Formatting

The reference list (appearing at the end of the article) should be numbered in the order that they appear in the text.

All references in text, tables, and legends must be identified by consecutive Arabic numerals in square brackets, listed immediately before the closing punctuation mark. E.g. [1] or [1,2] or [1-4] or [1-4,6] or [1,2,5-9] or [1,4-7,9, 11-20].

Published works, works accepted for publication, and citable datasets should appear in the reference list. Mentions of unpublished work should be cited parenthetically within the main text of the article as personal communications.

Citing References In-Text

Any in-text reference should include the authorship and the year of the work. Depending on the nature of the sentence/paragraph that is being written, references to sources may be cited in the text as described below:

Author's name cited in the text

When making reference to an author's work in your text, their name is followed by the year of publication of their work:

In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good practice to make reference to other relevant published work. This view has been supported in the work of Cormack (1994).

Where you are mentioning a particular part of the work, and making direct reference to this, a page reference should be included:

Cormack (1994, pp.32-33) states that "when writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works".

Author's name not cited directly in the text

If you make reference to a work or piece of research without mentioning the author in the text then both the author's name and publication year are placed at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence in brackets:

Making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing for a professional audience (Cormack, 1994).

More than one author cited in text

Where reference is made to more than one author in a sentence, and they are referred to directly, they are both cited:

Smith (1946) and Jones (1948) have both shown ...

Two or three authors for a work

When there are two or three authors for a work, they should be noted in the text

Directly using an and

White and Brown (2004) in their recent research paper found...

Or indirectly

Recent research (White and Brown, 2004) suggests that...

Other examples using two or three authors........

During the mid nineties research undertaken in Luton (Slater and Jones, 1996) showed that...

Further research (Green, Harris and Dunne, 1969) showed

When there are two or three authors for a work they should all be listed (in the order in which their names appear in the original publication), with the name listed last preceded by an and.

Four or more authors for a work

Where there are several authors (four or more), only the first author should be used, followed by et al. meaning and others:

Green, et al. (1995) found that the majority ...

or indirectly:

Recent research (Green, et al., 1995) has found that the majority of ...

More than one author not cited directly in the text

List these at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence, putting the author’s name, followed by the date of publication and separated by a semi-colon and within brackets.

Where several publications from a number of authors are referred to, then the references should be cited in chronological order (i.e. earliest first):

Further research in the late forties (Smith, 1946; Jones, 1948) led to major developments......

Recent research (Collins, 1998; Brown, 2001; Davies, 2008) shows that

Several works by one author in different years

If more than one publication from an author illustrates the same point and the works are published in different years, then the references should be cited in chronological order (i.e. earliest first):

as suggested by Patel (1992; 1994) who found that...

or indirectly:

research in the nineties (Patel, 1992; 1994) found that...

Several works by one author in the same year

If you are quoting several works published by the same author in the same year, they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter directly, with no space, after the year for each item:

Earlier research by Dunn (1993a) found that...but later research suggested again by Dunn (1993b) that ...

If several works published in the same year are referred to on a single occasion, or an author has made the same point in several publications, they can all be referred to by using lower case letters (as above):

Bloggs (1993a; 1993b) has stated on more than one occasion that ...

Chapter authors in edited works

References to the work of an author that appears as a chapter, or part of a larger work, that is edited by someone else, should be cited within your text using the name of the contributory author not the editor of the whole work.

In his work on health information, Smith (1975) states ...

In the reference list at the end of your document, you should include details of both the chapter author and the editor of the entire work

Smith, J., 1975. A source of information. In: W. Jones, ed. 2000. One hundred and one ways to find information about health. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ch.2

Corporate authors

If the work is by a recognised organisation and has no personal author then it is usually cited under the body that commissioned the work. This applies to publications by associations, companies, government departments etc. such as Department of the Environment or Royal College of Nursing.

It is acceptable to use standard abbreviations for these bodies, e.g. RCN, in your text, providing that the full name is given at the first citing with the abbreviation in brackets:

1st citation:

... following major pioneering research in 2006 undertaken by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) it has been shown that ...

2nd citation:

More recently the RCN (2007) has issued guidelines for...

Note that the full name is the preferred format in the reference list. These should provide the full name...

Royal College of Nursing, 2006.Children in the Community. London: RCN.

Royal College of Nursing, 2007.Administering intravenous therapy to children in the community setting: Guidance for nursing staff. London: RCN.

Some reports are written by specially convened groups or committees and can be cited by the name of the committee:

Committee on Nursing (1972)

Select Committee on Stem Cell Research (2002)

Note there are some exceptions to this such as:

BBC Philharmonic Orchestra

BBC News

where the abbreviations or initials form part of the official name.

No author

If the author cannot be identified use 'Anonymous' or 'Anon' and the title of the work and date of publication. The title should be written in italics.

Marketing strategy (Anon., 1999)

No date

The abbreviation n.d. is used to denote this:

Smith (n.d.) has written and demonstrated......

or indirectly:

Earlier research (Smith, n.d.) demonstrated that......

Every effort should be made to establish the year of publication if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission.

Page Numbers

Including the page numbers of a reference will help readers trace your sources. This is particularly important for quotations and for paraphrasing specific paragraphs in the texts:

Lawrence (1966, p.124) states "we should expect ..."

or indirectly:

This is to be expected (Lawrence, 1966, p.124)...

Please note page numbers: preceded with p. for a single page and pp. for a range of pages.

Quoting portions of published text

If you want to include text from a published work in your essay then the sentence(s) must be included within quotation marks, and may be introduced by such phrases as:

the author states that "............"

or

the author writes that "............"

On the topic of professional writing and referencing Cormack and Brown (1994, p.32) have stated...

"When writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works..."

In order for a reader to trace the quoted section it is good practice to give the number of the page where the quotation was found. The quotation should also be emphasized (where it is 50 words or more) by indenting it and enclosed in quotation marks. This clearly identifies the quotation as the work of someone else:

"Outside the UK, the BBC World Service has provided services by direct broadcasting and re-transmission contracts by sound radio since the inauguration of the BBC Empire Service in December 1932, and more recently by television and online. Though sharing some of the facilities of the domestic services, particularly for news and current affairs output, the World Service has a separate Managing Director, and its operating costs have historically been funded mainly by direct grants from the UK government. These grants were determined independently of the domestic licence fee. A recent spending review has announced plans for the funding for the world service to be drawn from the domestic licence fee". (Jones, 1967, p.27)

Secondary sources (second-hand references)

You may come across a summary of another author's work in the source you are reading, which you would like to make reference to in your own document; this is called secondary referencing.

A direct reference:

Research recently carried out in the Greater Manchester area by Brown (1966 cited in Bassett, 1986, p.142) found that ...

In this example, Brown is the work which you wish to refer to, but have not read directly for yourself. Bassett is the secondary source, where you found the summary of Brown's work.

Or indirectly:

(Brown, 1966 cited in Bassett, 1986, p.142)

It is important to realise that Bassett may have taken Brown's ideas forward, and altered their original meaning. If you need to cite a secondary reference it is recommended that, where possible, you read the original source for yourself rather than rely on someone else's interpretation of a work. For this reason it is best to avoid using secondary referencing.

The reference list at the end of your document should only contain works that you have read.

Tables and diagrams

When reproducing selected data, or copying an entire table or diagram, a reference must be made to the source. A reference within the text to a table taken from someone else's work, should include the author, date and page (Smith, 2005, p.33) to enable the reader to identify the data. If the source of the data is not the author's own, but obtained from another source, it becomes a secondary reference and needs to be cited as such:

(United Nations, 1975 cited in Smith, 2005, p.33)

If the table is reproduced in its entirety, place the citation below the table. Be particularly careful to note the original source of data, as well as the authorship of the document you are using. Full details should be included in the reference list.

Websites

When citing material found on a website, you should identify the authorship of the website. This may be a corporate author, an organisation or a company; a guide to this can be found by looking at the URL or web address. To find the date of publication, reference to this might be found at the bottom of a web page relating to copyright, or from a date headline.

Using Books, Journals and Newspapers

General Format

Author(s).Date.Title of the book.Edition. Place of publication: Publisher: Extent. (Series).Notes.

Books with one author

Use the title page, not the book cover, for the reference details. Only include the edition where it is not the first. A book with no edition statement is most commonly a first edition.

The required elements for a book reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book.Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place of publication (this must be a town or city, not a country): Publisher.

Reference

where 1st edition

Baron, D. P., 2008.Business and the organisation. Chester: Pearson.

where 3rd edition

Redman, P., 2006. Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. 3rd ed. London: Open University in assoc. with Sage.

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

Organisations have been found to differ (Baron, 2008) when there is ...

Leading social scientists such as Redman (2006) have noted ...

Please note where there is likely to be confusion with UK place names; for USA towns include the State in abbreviated form e.g. Birmingham, AL.

Books with multiple authors

For books with multiple authors, all the names should all be included in the order they appear in the document. Use an and to link the last two multiple authors.

The required elements for a reference are:

Authors, Initials., Year. Title of book.Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place: Publisher.

Reference

Adams, R. J.,Weiss, T.D. and Coatie, J.J., 2010. The World Health Organisation, its history and impact. London: Perseus.

Barker, R., Kirk, J. and Munday, R.J., 1988.Narrative analysis. 3rd ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

Leading organisations concerned with health (Adams, Weiss and Coatie, 2010) have proved that...

A new theory (Barker, Kirk and Munday, 1988) has challenged traditional thinking...

Books which are edited

For books which are edited give the editor(s) surname(s) and initials, followed by ed. or eds..

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., ed., Year. Title of book.Edition. Place: Publisher.

Keene, E. ed., 1988.Natural language. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.

Silverman, D.F. and Propp, K.K. eds., 1990.The active interview. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Allouche, Jose. ed., 2006. Corporate social resposibility, Volume 1: concepts, accountability and reporting. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chapters of edited books

For chapters of edited books the required elements for a reference are:

Chapter author(s) surname(s) and initials., Year of chapter. Title of chapter followed by In: Book editor(s) initials first followed by surnames with ed. or eds. after the last name. Year of book.Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Chapter number or first and last page numbers followed by full-stop.

References

Samson, C., 1970. Problems of information studies in history. In: S. Stone, ed. 1980. Humanities information research. Sheffield: CRUS. pp.44-68.

Smith, J., 1975. A source of information. In: W. Jones, ed. 2000. One hundred and one ways to find information about health. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ch.2.

An intext reference for the above example would read:

(Samson, 1970)

(Smith, 1975)

Multiple works by the same author

Where there are several works by one author and published in the same year they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the date.

Remember that this must also be consistent with the citations in the text

For multiple works the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initals., Year followed by letter. Title of book. Place: Publisher.

Soros, G., 1966a. The road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Soros, G., 1966b. Beyond the road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Works by the same author should be displayed in the order referenced in your assignment, earliest first (as above).

An intext reference for the above example would read:

(Soros, 1966a)

(Soros, 1966b)

This also applies if there are several authors with the same surname. As an alternative their initials can be included in the citation.

So for example, if you have sources written by George Soros and also by Manuel Soros, you would list them in alphabetic order:

(Soros, G. 1966a)

(Soros, G. 1966b)

(Soros, M. 1966)

Books- translations/imprints/reprints

For works which have been translated the reference should include details of the translator, the suggested elements for such references being:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Translated from (language) by (name of translator, initials first, then surname) Place of publication: Publisher.

Canetti, E., 2001. The voices of Marrakesh: a record of a visit. Translated from German by J.A.Underwood. San Francisco: Arion.

For major works of historic significance, the date of the original work may be included along with the date of the translation:

Kant, I., 1785. Fundamental principles of the metaphysic of morals.Translated by T.K. Abbott., 1988. New York: Prometheus Books.

For works in an another language, reference these in the same manner as an English language work but provide a translation. Students should check with their Faculty the validity of including original language works.

E-books and pdfs

E-books available through the University Library

For e-books accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year, Title of book. [e-book] Place of publication: Publisher. Followed by Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library websitehttp://libweb.anglia.ac.uk[Accessed date].

Fishman, R., 2005. The rise and fall of suburbia. [e-book] Chester: Castle Press. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library websitehttp://libweb.anglia.ac.uk[Accessed 12 May 2010].

Carlsen, J. and Charters, S., eds. 2007. Global wine tourism. [e-book] Wallingford: CABI Pub. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library websitehttp://libweb.anglia.ac.uk[Accessed 9 June 2008].

For an open access e-book freely available over the internet such as through Google books

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. [e-book] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Followed by Available at: e-book source and web address or URL for the e-book [Accessed date].

Cookson, J. and Church, S. eds., 2007.Leisure and the tourist. [e-book] Wallingford: ABS Publishers. Available at: Google Bookshttp://booksgoogle.com[Accessed 9 June 2008].

For an e-book from specific e-readers and other devices such as Kindle, or Nook

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year, Title of book. [e-book type] Place of publication (if available): Publisher. Followed by Available at: e-book source and web address [Accessed date].

Patterson, M. 2012. Lost places in dreams. [Kindle DX version] Transworld Media. Available at: Amazon.co.ukhttp:// www.amazon.co.uk[Accessed 9 June 2012].

If you include a quotation from an ebook without page numbers, use the section heading or chapter heading as a guide to locating your quotation, if available.

PDF documents

For a pdf version of, for example, a Government publication or similar which is freely available:

The required elements for a reference are:

Authorship, Year.Title of documents. [type of medium] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Followed by Available at: include web address or URL for the actual pdf, where available [Accessed date]. Bank of England, 2008.Inflation Report. [pdf] Bank of England. Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2009].

Department of Health, 2008. Health inequalities: progress and next steps. [pdf] London: Department of Health. Available at:http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_085307[Accessed 9 June 2008].

Print journal articles

For journal articles the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page number(s).

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an brief look. Political Science Quarterly, 42(6), p.564.

Cox, C., 2002. What health care assistants know about clean hands. Nursing today, Spring Issue, pp.647-85.

Perry, C., 2001. What health care assistants know about clean hands. Nursing Times, 97(22), pp.63-64.

General Format

Author(s).Date.Article title. Journal Title volume(issue): pages. doi.

Fewer than Five Authors

Steffen W, Crutzen PJ, McNeill, JR. 2007. The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature. Ambio 36(8): 614-621.

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36[614:TAAHNO]2.0.CO;2

More than Five Authors

Doxa A , Robert A , Crivelli A, Catsadorakis G, Naziridis T, et al. 2012. Shifts in breeding phenology as a response to population size and climatic change: A comparison between short- and long-distance migrant species. Auk 129(4): 753-762. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/auk.2012.11213

Journal articles accessed through a database

For journal articles from an electronic source accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if availalble. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website [Accessed date]

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an in depth look. Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42(6). Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library websitehttp://libweb.anglia.ac.uk[Accessed 12 June 2005].

An example of a Cochrane Review

Katchamart, W., Trudeau, J., Phumethum, V. and Bombardier, C., 2010.Methotrexate monotherapy versus methotrexate combination therapy with non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, [online] 4 (CD008495) Available at:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008495/abstract[Accessed 6 August 2013].

An example of an early view article from the BMJ

Currie, G.P., Small, I. and Douglas, G., 2013.Long acting Β2 agonists in adult asthma. BMJ [e-journal] Early view article: Accepted 20 May 2013, Published 6 August 2013, BMJ2013 ;347:f4662. Available at:http://www.bmj.com/content/347/bmj.f4662[Accessed 8 August 2013].

Journal abstract from a database

For a journal abstract from a database where you have been unable to access the full article, the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if availalble. Abstract only.

Available through: Source [Accessed date].

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: a brief look. Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42(6). Abstract only. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library websitehttp://libweb.anglia.ac.uk[Accessed 12 June 2005].

Every effort should be made to read the article in full if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission.

News paper articles

For newspaper articles the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article or column header.Full Title of Newspaper, Day and month before page numbers and column line.

Slapper, G., 2005. Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers.

The Times, 3 Sep. p.4b.

(In the page reference. p.4b - "4" indicates that the article is on the fourth page of the newspaper, columns of print on a page are labelled left to right alphabetically, so in this example "b" indicates that this is the second column of newsprint across the page from left to right.)

An example of corporate authorship where the newspaper article authorship is not stated.

Times, 2005. Corporate manslaughter: responses from the legal profession (Editorial comments), The Times, 8 Sep. p.4b.

Online newspaper articles

For newspaper articles found in online newspapers, the required elements for a reference are:

Author or corporate author, Year.Title of document or page.Name of newspaper, [type of medium] additional date information. Available at: [Accessed date].

Chittenden, M., Rogers, L. and Smith, D., 2003. Focus: 'Targetitis ails NHS. Times Online, [online]1 June. Available at:http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/scotland/article1138006.ece

[Accessed 17 March 2005].

Coney, J., 2009. Is this the start of a new home loan war HSBC vows to lend £1billion to homebuyers with 10% deposits. Daily Mail, [online] (Last updated 9.47 AM on 09th April 2009). Available at:http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1168461/Is-start-new-home-loan-war-HSBC-vows-lend-1billion-homebuyers-10-deposits.php

[Accessed on 20 April 2009].

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

(Chittenden, et al. 2003)

(Coney, 2009)

Using Other Source Types

Acts of Parliament

The required elements are:

Short title (with key words capitalized), which includes the year followed by the chapter number in brackets. Place of publication: Publisher.

Higher Education Act 2004. (c.8). London: HMSO.

For Acts prior to 1963, the regal year and parliamentary session are included:

Road Transport Lighting Act 1957. (5&6 Eliz. 2, c.51). London: HMSO.

If you need to refer to a specific section and paragraph, include the section, paragraph number and subsection. Finance Act 2007. s.45(9)(b).

Satutory instruments

The required elements for a reference are:

Short title (with key words capitalized). Year. the abbreviation 'SI' followed by the year of publication and the SI number. Place of publication: Publisher.

Public Offers of Securities Regulations 1995. 1995 SI 1995/1537. London: HMSO.

Official publications such as Command Papers

The required elements for a reference are:

Authorship, which may be part of the title, Year. Title, in italics if a separate element, Offically assigned number such as a Command number as it is on the document, within brackets. Place of publication: Publisher.

Royal Commission on civil liability and compensation for personal injury, 1978. (Pearson Report) (Cmnd. 7054). London: HMSO.

Select Committee on nationalised industries (1978-9), 1978. Consumers and the nationalised industries: prelegislative hearings (HC 334, 1978-9). London: HMSO.

House of Commons, Home Affairs Committee, 2012. The Work of the Border Force. (HC 523, Sixth Report of Session 2012-13) - Report, Together with Formal Minutes. London:TSO (The Stationery Office).

Law reports

It is recommended that you follow accepted legal citation, which is not part of the Harvard system. For this the required elements for a reference are:

Name of the parties involved in the law case, Year of reporting (in square brackets where there is no volume, or round brackets as indicated by the reference you are using) abbreviation for the law reporting series, part number/case number/page reference if available.

Jones v Lipman [1962] 1 WLR 832.

Saidi v France (1994) 17 EHRR 251, p.245.

R v White (John Henry) [2005] EWCA Crim 689, 2005 WL 104528.

In the last example you should only quote the two law reports if you have used them.

An intext reference for the above example would read:

In the recent case of R v White (John Henry) (2005), the defence noted ...

Annual report

The required elements for a reference are:

Corporate author, Year. Full title of annual report, Place of Publication: Publisher.

Marks & Spencer, 2004. The way forward, Annual report 2003-2004, London: Marks & Spencer.

For an e-version of an annual report. The required elements for a reference are:

Author or corporate author, Year. Title of document or page, [type of medium]

Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator)

[Accessed date]

Marks & Spencer, 2004. Annual report 2003-2004. [online]

Available at:

[Accessed 4 June 2005].

Archive material

If you have used material from archives or special collections, the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of document. [type of medium] Collection, Document number. Geographical Town/Place: Name of Library/Archive/Repository.

Brown, P.S., 1915. An address to the Farmer. [manuscript] Holdbury Collection. 600. London: Holdbury Library.

An intext reference for the above example would read:

(Brown, 1915)

British Standards and International Standards

The required elements for a reference are:

Corporate author, Year of Publication. Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard, Place of publication: Publisher.

British Standards Institution, 1990. BS 5555:1990 Recommendations for wiring identification. Milton Keynes: BSI.

International Standards Office, 1998. ISO 690 - 2 Information and documentation: Bibliographical references: Electronic documents. Geneva: ISO.

The required elements for an e-version are:

Corporate author, Year. Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard. Place of publication (if available): Publisher [online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed date].

British Standards Institution, 2011. BS EN 594:2011 Timber structures. Test methods. Racking strength and stiffness of timber frame wall panels. British Standards Online [online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 31 August 2011].

Patents

The required elements for a reference are:

Inventor name, Initials., Assignee., Year. Title. Place. Patent number (status, if an application).

Example:

Graham, C.P., Fonti, L. and Martinez, A.M., American Sugar Co. 1972. Tableting sugar and compositions containing it. U.S. Pat. 3,642,535.

Leonard, Y., Super Sports Limited. 2008. Tin can manufacture and method of sealing. Canada. Pat. 12,789,675.

Conference reports and papers

The required elements for a conference report are:

Authorship, Year. Full title of conference report. Location, Date. Place of publication: Publisher.

UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 2005. 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, Republic of Korea, 24-27 May 2005. New York: United Nations.

The required elements for a conference paper are:

Author, Initials., Year. Full title of conference paper. In: followed by editor or name of organisation, Full title of conference. Location, Date. Place of publication: Publisher.

Brown, J., 2005. Evaluating surveys of transparent governance. In: UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, Republic of Korea, 24-27 May 2005. New York: United Nations.

Reports by organisations

The required elements for a reference are:

Authorship/Organisation, Year. Full title of report. Place: Publisher:

Department of Health, 2001. National service framework for older people. London: Department of Health.

Coulter, A. and Collins, A., 2011. Making shared decision-making a reality: no decision about me, without me. London: The King's Fund.

The required elements for an e-version are:

Authorship/Organisation, Year. Full title of report. [type of medium] Place: Publisher. Available at: include web address/URL [Accessed on date].

Department of Health, 2001. National service framework for older people. [pdf] London: Department of Health. Available at:http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4071283.pdf[Accessed 12 September 2011].

Coulter, A. and Collins, A., 2011. Making shared decision-making a reality: no decision about me, without me. [pdf] London: The King's Fund. Available at:http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/publications/nhs_decisionmaking.php[Accessed 12 September 2011].

Dissertations and Theses

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of dissertation. Level. Official name of University.

Richmond, J., 2005. Customer expectations in the world of electronic banking: a case study of the Bank of Britain. Ph. D. Anglia Ruskin University.

The required elements for an e-version are:

Author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of dissertation. Level. Official name of University. Available at [Accessed on date].

Fisher, C. W., 2008. The legacy of leadership - a study of leadership influence within a single organisation. DEd. University of Sheffield. Available at: [Accessed 30.07.2012].

European union documents

Following EU conventions, examples of various EU documents are given below:

The required elements for a reference are:

The name of the Institution where the document originates (e.g. Commission) Form (eg Directive or Decision) Year/Legislation number/ Initials of Institution followed by the date it was passed if known, followed by the title, all in italics.

Council Directive 2001/29 /EC of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society.

Commission Decision 93/42/EEC of 21 December 1992 concerning additional guarantees relating to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis for bovines destined for Denmark.

EU Regulation 1408/71

REGULATION (EEC) No 1408/71 OF THE COUNCIL of 14 June 1971 on the application of social security schemes to employed persons and their families moving within the Community.

Council Regulation (EEC) 1612/68[5] of 15 October 1968 on freedom of movement for workers within the Community.

Course material and lecture notes

It is important to check with the lecturer who has given the lecture that they are in agreement with course material being included in any Reference List. If they are in agreement, and if it is not a publicly available document, it is important to provide a copy in the Appendix of your work. The citation to the course material in your Reference List should then also refer to the Appendix.

It would also be advisable to follow up any sources mentioned in your lecture and read these for yourself.

Course material / lecture notes - print version

The required elements for a reference are:

Lecturer/Author, Initials., Year. Title of item, Module Code Module title. HE Institution, unpublished.

Williams, B., 2008. Guide to project management, BD45001S Management. Anglia Ruskin University, unpublished.

An intext reference for the above example would read:

(Williams, 2008)

Course material - electronic

The required elements for a reference are:

Lecturer/Author, Initials., Year. Title of item, Module Code Module Title [online via internal VLE], HE Institution. Available at: web address if available over the internet, otherwise indicate if available through WebCT, SharePoint or other virtual learning environment address. [Accessed date].

Williams, B., 2008. Guide to project management, BD45001S Management. [online via internal VLE] Anglia Ruskin University Available at: [Accessed Date 13 June 2008].

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

(Williams, 2008) ...

Quotations from written plays

When reviewing a number of different plays it is essential to cite the title of the plays. If reviewing one play (for example Twelfth Night) it is not necessary to repeat the title in your citations.

Published plays may contain line numbers, particularly in classic texts such as Shakespeare. If they exist it is good practice to include the line number, but Act and Scene numbers must always be included.

Classic plays are available in edited editions and the editor's name should be included with your reference.

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year (of the edition). Title of play. Editors, Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place of publication: (this must be a town or city, not a country) Publisher.

Shakespeare, W. 1995. Twelfth Night. (World's Classics series) Warren, R. and Wells, T. eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

Much speculation has occurred when Malvolio imagines he might marry Olivia, "there is example for't; the Lady of the Strachy married the yeoman of the wardrobe" (Shakespeare, Twelfth Night II,v,36-7).

Interviews

Where you have conducted an interview - using a primary source. You are recommended to check with your Faculty Office for detailed guidance on what you may include.

Where you are conducting the interview, it is important to check with the person being interviewed that they will be in agreement with a transcript of the interview being made available. Since this will not be a publicly available document, it may be included as a transcript within an Appendix in your piece of work.

The citation for this interview should refer to the Appendix.

In an interview (Appendix A) the findings of the report were reviewed and White agreed with ...

In the Appendix you should include details such as:

Interviewee's name. Year of interview. Title of interview. Interviewed by ...name. [type of medium/format] Location and exact date of interview . Together with the transcript.

Where you are using an interview from a source such as a television programme

The suggested elements for a reference are:

Interviewee name, Initials., Year of Interview. Title of Interview. (or Interview on ..name of programme) Interviewed by ...name (first name and surname). [type of medium/format] Name of Channel, Date of transmission, time of transmission.

Ahern, B., 1999. Interview on Morning Ireland. Interviewed by... John Boyd [radio] RTE Radio 1, 15 February 1999, 08:30.

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

(Ahern, 1999)

Press release

These may be print or electronic.

For a print press release:

Corporate author of press release, Year. Title. Press release, date.

RCN, 2009. RCN praises health care staff as infections continue to fall. Press release, 18 June 2009.

For an electronic press release:

Corporate author of press release, Year. Title. [press release] date. Available at: web address [Accessed date].

RCN, 2009. RCN praises health care staff as infections continue to fall. [press release] 18 June 2009. Available at:http://www.rcn.org.uk/newsevents/news/article/uk/rcn_praises_health_care_staff_as_infections_continue_to_fall[Accessed 23 June 2009].

Department of Health, 2011. Act F.A.S.T. campaign relaunched to save more lives. [press release] 28 February 2011. Available at:http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/MediaCentre/Pressreleases/DH_124696[Accessed 15 April 2012].

Religious texts

When you are quoting from a sacred text e.g. the Bible, the Torah or the Quran, the suggested elements for a citation are:

Name of religious text, Book. Sura or Chapter: Verse

An in-text reference for the Bible could look like this...

"In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth" (The Bible, Genesis. 1:1)

Convention dictates that you do not use page numbers with religious texts

The required elements for a full reference are:

Full title, Year. Place of publication: Publisher.

The Bible: contemporary English version, 2000. London: Harper Collins.

For other sacred texts, it is important that you clearly identify the location of the text that you cite using the appropriate numbering system.

Reference from dictionary

When you are quoting a definition from a dictionary, use the publisher as the author.

The required elements for a citation are:

(Publisher, Year)

(Chambers, 2010)

For the reference

The suggested elements for a reference are:

Dictionary publisher, Year. Full title of dictionary. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Chambers, 2010. Chambers paperback dictionary thesaurus. London: Champers Harpers Publishers Ltd.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2012. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. [online] London: Encyclopedia Britannica (UK). Avaialble through:encyclopaediabritannica.co.uk/intro[Accessed 12 June 2011].

Data Sources

Where data it extracted from a data source such as Isurv or FAME, both the source with the year of currency for that data. should be acknowledge in an intext reference.

Complete details should be included in the reference list.

RICS ISurv, 2013. More new homes. [Building surveying > Pathology > Modern methods of construction > Meeting challenges with MMC] ISurv [online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library [Accessed 21 May 2013].

Where you have gathered and manipulated data from a data source like FAME or OECD and placed this in a table of your own making, we recommend that you give the source and year of currency, for the data, as an the intext reference and include a note to an appendix. In the appendix you can reproduce the source tables you have used to create your table and include adequate details of how you generated the table you have used in your work.

Computer Program

For a computer program downloaded from the internet, the required elements of a references are:

Authorship/Organisation, Year. Title of program. (Version). [computer program] Distributor/Publisher. (if available) Available at: [Accessed date]

Adobe Systems Incorporated, 2013. Adobe Air (3.8 beta). [computer program] Adobe Labs. Available at:http://labs.adobe.com/technologies/flashruntimes/air/[Accessed 30 August 2013].

Using Electronic Sources

Websites

For websites found on the worldwide web the required elements for a reference are:

Authorship or Source, Year.Title of web document or web page. [type of medium] (date of update if available) Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

If the URL appears to be exceedingly long, provide routing details which enable the reader to access the particular page via the site's homepage. You may be taken to a particular page as a result of a search you performed, or be directed from a link to another place on a website. The resultant URLs may include specific data about your method of accessing that page that is not available to your reader. If this is the case use the homepage (from which the reference can be found).

NHS Evidence, 2003.National Library of Guidelines. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 October 2009].

Publications available from websites

For publications found on the internet the required elements for a reference are:

Author or corporate author, Year.Title of document. [type of medium] Place: Producer/Publisher. Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Boots Group Plc., 2003. Corporate social responsibility. [online] Boots Group Plc. Available at: [Accessed 23 July 2005].

Defoe, D., 1999. The fortunes and the misfortunes of the famous Moll Flanders. [online] Champaign, Illinois: Project Gutenberg. Available at: [Accessed 18 November 2005].

Independent Inquiry into Access to Healthcare for People with Learning Disabilities, n.d. Healthcare for all. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 April 2009].

Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines, 2001.Hypertension in the elderly. (SIGN publication 20) [online] Edinburgh: SIGN (Published 2001) Available at: [Accessed 17 March 2005].

E-mail correspondence/discussion lists

Particular care needs to be taken if you are quoting from these as they may include personal email addresses and be from a restricted source.

Permission should be sought before these sources are quoted.

For email correspondence or discussion lists the suggested elements for a reference are:

Name of sender, email address, Year.Message or subject title from posting line. [type of medium] Recipient's name and (email address). Date sent: Including time. Available at: URL (e.g. details of where message is archived) [Accessed date].

Jones, P., jones@jones.com, 2005.Mobile phone developments. [email] Message to R G. Schmit (r.g.schmit@syy.ac.uk).Sent Monday 7 June 2005: 08:13. Available at: [Accessed 7 July 2005].

Copies of such correspondence should be kept, as these may need to be submitted as an appendix in an academic submission

Blogs

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of individual blog entry.Blog title, [medium] Blog posting date. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Whitton, F., 2009. Conservationists are not making themselves heard. Guardian.co.uk Science blog, [blog] 18 June. Available at: [Accessed 23 June 2009].

Blog comments

The required elements for a reference are:

Comment Author, Year. Title of individual blog entry.Blog title, [medium] Comment posting date. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

DGeezer, 2009. Conservationists are not making themselves heard. Guardian.co.uk Science blog, [blog] 18 June, Available at: [Accessed 23 June 2009].

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

(Whitton, 2009)

(DGeezer, 2009)

Mailing list

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initial., Year. Subject line, Title of Mailing List. [online] date of message. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Murrey, T., 2009.Sharing good practice, Forum for International Students. [online] 23 June 2009. Available at: [Accessed 23 June 2009].

Social Media

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of page [Facebook].Day/month post written. Available from: [ Accessed date].

Andrews, A., 2012. Customer Focus Group [Facebook]. 11 November . Available at: [Accessed 11 November 2010].

Author, Initials., Year. Full text of tweet [Twitter].Day/month tweet written. Available at: [Date accessed].

Big Red Corporation. 2013. New products for cars [Twitter]. 17 May Available at: [Accessed 13 November 2010].

Unpublished Works

Unpublished works

You may occasionally have access to a document before it is published and may therefore not be able to provide full details:

Pattison, J., (in press) A new book that I have written. London: Vanity Press.

Woolley, E. and Muncey, T., (in press) Demons or diamonds: a study to ascertain the range of attitudes present in health professionals to children with conduct disorder. Journal of Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing.(Accepted for publication December 2002).

Informal or in-house publications

For informal publications, such as class handouts and leaflets, provide what details you can:

Anglia Ruskin University, 2007.Using the Cochrane Library. [leaflet] August 2007 ed. Cambridge: Anglia Ruskin University.

Personal communication

Where you refer to a more informal personal communication, e.g. letter, email, phone call or conversation, provide as much detail as possible and note the nature of the communication.

Permission should be sought before these sources are quoted, and a copy retained for reference.

Hindle, E., 2000. Introducing Cow & Gate Omneo Comfort: an infant milk for digestive comfort. [letter] (Personal communication, 2 June 2000).

O'Sullivan, S., 2003.Discussion on citation and referencing. [letter] (Personal communication, 5 June 2003).

Images

DVD, video or film

The required elements for a reference are:

Full title of DVD or video. Year of release. [type of medium] Director. (if relevant) Country of origin: Film studio or maker. (Other relevant details).

Great films from the 80s: a selection of clips from Warner Brothers top films from the 1980s. 2005 [DVD] New York: Warner Brothers.

Health for all children 3: the video. 2004. [video] London: Child Growth Foundation. (Narrated by D.B.M. Hall).

For a film the suggested elements should include:

Title. Year of release. [Medium] Director. Country of origin: Film studio.

Macbeth, 1948. [Film] Directed by Orson Welles. USA: Republic Pictures

Broadcasts

For a broadcast the suggested elements should include:

Series title and episode name and number if relevant, Year of broadcast. [type of medium] Broadcasting organisation and Channel, date and time of transmission.

Little Britain, 2006. [TV programme] BBC, BBC2, 30 January 2006 20.00.

For a broadcast obtained through Box of Broadcasts

Little Britain, 2006. [TV programme recording] BBC, BBC2, 30 January 2006 20:00. Available through: Box of Broadcasts database [Accessed 12 August 2011].

Pictures, Images and photographs

The suggested elements for a reference are:

Artist/Photographer's name (if known), Year of production. Title of image. [type of medium] Collection Details as available (Collection, Document number, Geographical Town/Place: Name of Library/Archive/Repository).

Beaton, C., 1956. Marilyn Monroe. [photograph] (Marilyn Monroe�s own private collection).

Beaton, C., 1944. China 1944: A mother resting her head on her sick child's pillow in the Canadian Mission Hospital in Chengtu. [photograph] (London, Imperial War Museum Collection).

For an electronic reference the suggested elements are:

Artist/Photographer's name, Year of production. Title of image. [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) and additional details of access, such as the routing from the homepage of the source. [Accessed date].

Dean, R., 2008. Tales from Topographic Oceans. [electronic print] Available at: [Accessed 18 June 2008].

Image taken from Bridgemean Education database

Peeters, C., ca. 164?. Still life of fish and lemons. (Bridgeman Education database) [image online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website [Accessed 12 June 2013]

Electronic images

For images found on the internet the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Year (image created). Title of work. [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Where the author is not known, begin the reference with the title of the work.

Where none of the usual details are known, (such as author, date, or image title) try to find the filename of the image (for example by right clicking and looking at the properties of the file). If none of the above is available begin the reference with the subject and title of the work.

[Child placing gauze over knee wound] n.d. [image online] Available at:< http://www.dadpal.com/2009/12/wounds-care-help-and-wound-vac-therapy.php>[Accessed 01 June 2010].

[Nimbus 1 returned sharp cloud cover photos, plus night time infra red pictures] n.d. [image online] Available at: [Accessed 13 November 2008].

Pepsi, 2009. Pepsi can designs. [image online] Available at: [Accessed 19 June 2009].

Van Vechten, C. 1934. Man Ray. [photograph] Available at: [Accessed 04 October 2009].

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

(Child placing gauze, n.d.)

(Nimbus 1, n.d.)

(Pepsi, 2009)

(Van Vechten, 1934)

Maps-Print Maps, Digimap and Google Earth

The required elements for a reference are:

Map maker, Year of issue. Title of map. Map series, Sheet number, scale. Place of publication: Publisher.

Ordnance Survey, 2006. Chester and North Wales. Landranger series, Sheet 106, 1:50000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey. The required elements for Digimap are:

Map publisher (origin), Year of publication. Created map title, Scale. Source [online] Available through Library website [Accessed date].

Ordinance Survey, 2011. Anglia Ruskin University: Chelmsford Campus, 1:1.500. EDINA Digimap [online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library [Accessed 31 August 2011].

The suggested elements for Google Earth are:

Google Earth version (if applicable), Year data released. Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. Data set (if applicable) [online] Available through: URL [Accessed date].

Google Earth 6.0, 2008. Hylands House and Estates 51°42'39.17"N, 0°26'11.30"W, elevation 60M. 3D Buildings data layer. Available through: [Accessed 31 August 2011].

Podcast and archived TV programme

The required elements for a reference are:

Broadcaster/Author, Year. Programme title, Series Title. (if relevant) [type of medium] date of transmission. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

National Gallery, 2008. Episode Seventeen (March 2008), The National Gallery Monthly Podcast. [podcast] March 2008. Available at:< http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/podcasts>[Accessed 23 June 2009].

YouTube video

The required elements for a reference are:

Screen name of contributor, Year. Video Title, Series Title. (if relevant) [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Mrgeorged, 2009. Top Gear The Stig revealed Full. [video online] Available at: [Accessed 23 June 2009].

Defra, 2007. Sustainable development: the bigger picture. [video online] Available at: [Accessed 23 June 2012].

An in text reference for the above example would read:

The principle research states "The need for substainable development..." (Defra 2007)