Step by step instructions

Table Preparation

  • The table numbers should be cited at the relevant places in the text in parenthesis after the punctuation mark .e.g. (Table 1) or (Tables 1-4) or (Tables 1,3,6-8).
  • We impose no limit on the number of tables submitted, but we do require that all tables—main or supplemental—be well described. Good metadata are key to discoverability and usefulness.
  • Each table should be numbered in the order of first citation in the text, using Arabic numerals, e.g. Table 1.
  • You will need to send your original, editable files (e.g. in Microsoft Word or Excel). This will reduce the likelihood of errors being introduced during production of your article.
  • Non-editable files (e.g. JPEG or TIFF images, or images of text boxes in PowerPoint) are not suitable formats but can be included in addition to the editable files for reference.
  • Each table should appear on separate page.
  • A title for every table which summarizes the whole table must be given above the table.
  • Please present table titles separately for each table, rather than including them as the first row of the table. Table notes should be separate from the titles and included underneath the table to which they apply.
  • Tables should present new information rather than duplicating what is in the text. Readers should be able to interpret the table without reference to the text.
  • Tables should be self-explanatory and not duplicate the data presented in figures.
  • Tables do not have strict dimension requirements. However, some wide tables may be printed sideways in the PDF version of the article. Very large tables may span more than one page in the PDF.
  • When submitting multiple tables, consistency in presentation is advised where possible.
  • Kindly prepare tables using the table function of word processing program like Microsoft Word. Do not use spaces or table for making tables.
  • Charts should be sent as Excel or PowerPoint files.
  • Place explanations, comments and full form of non-standard abbreviations in footnotes below each table.
  • If some materials have been taken from previously published literature, give the reference at the end of table caption, and include the citation in the list of references at appropriate places.
  • Please note that color, shading, vertical rules, and other cell borders are not compatible with our publishing requirements. Where necessary please use notes, italics, or bold text for emphasis with accompanying footnotes explaining their significance.
  • Where superscript notes are used, the letters should follow alphabetical order from the top left of the table to the bottom right. All statistical significance notes should be represented in the table, or deleted. Please also add notes explaining any acronyms or abbreviations in table titles or column headings.
  • When representing information numerically, use as many decimal places as is appropriate for your purposes. This number should be consistent throughout the column, or table if possible.
  • The text in your table will be copy-edited to match the style of the journal.
  • Refer to each table in the text.
  • If you are sending tables in a separate file, insert a note in the text indicating the preferred location for each table, e.g. [t]Table 1 near here[/t].
  • Supplemental tables referenced within the text, but not integrated into the PDF version of the article. Supplemental material provides readers with additional information that enhances the main text but is not critical to its assertions. (For detailed information, please see Supplemental Material & Data.)


Tables must

  • -be cell-based (e.g., created in Word with Tables tool (preferred), Rich Text, or LaTex;
  • -be editable (i.e., not a graphic object);
  • -be organized with rows and columns, not with returns, spaces, or tabs;
  • -have heading/subheading levels in separate columns;
  • -multi-part tables with varying numbers of columns or multiple footnote sections should be divided and renumbered as separate tables.

Tables must not:

  • -use returns or tabs within a cell;
  • -have color or shading;
  • -use lines, rules, or borders;
  • -contain spaces within cells to align text;
  • -have vertically merged cells (horizontally merged cells are fine);
  • -have inserted text boxes or pictures;
  • -contain tables within tables or cells within cells;
  • -include empty columns, rows, or cells to create spacing;
  • -include hyperlinked text.
  • If your submitted table contains any of these elements, they will be returned for adjustments.