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Trends in Transplantation

Online ISSN: 1887-455X

Dr. Sung Joo Kim (Editor-in-Chief)

SungkyunKwan University The School of Medicine

Journal Impact Factor: 1.69*


NLM ID : 101559473

MIAR : (Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals) - ICDS 2017: 4.0

Trends in Transplantation (1887-455X) is the oldest and largest- circulation multidisciplinary peer-reviewed open access journal with a primary focus on advances in Transplantation Science. Trends in Transplantation is the most cited and influential journal in the field.

The journal provides both scientific innovation and educational material, disseminates vital registry database information and highlights key scientific advances presented at meetings held by transplantation associations.

The inherent flexible capacity of multimedia electronic publishing combined with high standards of peer review set by exceptional leaders within the transplantation community allow for an inclusive, comprehensive, and yet rigorous approach to presenting significant developments in transplantation.

Types of Articles to be Published:

Trends in Transplantation will feature original research, review papers, clinical studies, editorials, expert opinion and perspective papers, commentaries, and book reviews.

Trends in Transplantation welcomes direct submissions from authors: Attach your word file with e- mail and send it to submissions@oatext.com alternatively to: editor.jto@oatext.com

Please, follow the Instructions for Authors. In the cover letter add the name and e-mail address of 5 proposed reviewers (we can choose them or not).

We publish articles in the following areas of research. Manuscripts covering topics outside of this area may be considered.

Organ Transplantation

Corneal Transplant

Xenotransplantation

Eyeball Transplant

Donation and Transplantation

Skin Transplant

Human Organ Transplantation

Transplantation Immunology

Kidney Transplantation

Experimental Transplantation

Kidney Failure

Knee Transplant

Kidney Disorders

Womb Transplant

Dialysis & Transplantation

Thymus Transplant

Nephrology and Dialysis

Neural Transplant

Nephrology

Dental Implants

Liver Transplantation

Bone-Marrow Transplant

Hepatology

Renal Transplant

Liver

Tissue Transplant

Liver Failure

Transplantation of Human Cells Tissues And Organs

Liver Diseases

Pancreases

Heart Transplantation

Heart Failure

Lung Transplantation

Skin Grafting

Intestinal Transplant

Organ Donation and Procurement

Pancreas Transplant

Surgical Nephrectomy

Hyperacute Rejection (HAR)

Retransplantation

Acute Vascular Rejection (AVR)

Living Donors and Paired Exchange

Acute Cellular Rejection (ACR)

Histocompatibility

Chronic Rejection

Pharmacology and Immunosuppression

Abo-Incompatible Transplants

Face and Limb Transplantation

Copyright is retained by the authors and articles can be freely used and distributed by others. Articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published by TiT, is properly cited

Indexed in

Dr. Sung Joo Kim


Sung Joo Kim is a professor of surgery in Samsung Medical Center. After receiving his medical degree at the Catholic University School of Medicine, Dr. Kim completed his clinical training at the University of Minnesota, Wisconsin and Emory. Now he is a director of organ transplantation center, sarcoma center and animal research center in SMC. He supervises medical students, residents, and postdoctoral fellows as well as frequently delivers presentations on topics involving transplantation science and the management of transplantation patients.

His current research interests are in improving cell and organ transplantation relate to immunological events. Most of all, tolerance induction offer hope for graft survival in transplantation minimizing disadvantage of immunosuppressant. The other hands, autoimmune disease and diabetes are also related to immunological complication in patients. Understanding the immunologic mechanisms between transplant and recipient should lead to ways to re-establish transplantation and autoimmune disease by combining the tools of molecular biotechnology and stem cell biology. Furthermore, the group plans to develop a translational knowledge of the transplantation that render them basis for the application into clinic using non-human primate and humanized mouse modeling. This is the basis for generating powerful tools that could enhance the graft survival after transplant and eventually extend to the treatment of patients who have organ problems.

Associate Editor-in-Chief

Dr. Ahmed Hammad Elsharkawi, MD, MSc, PhD, MRCSi

General and GIT surgery and Transplantation, Mansoura University Hospital, Faculty of medicine, Mansoura University
Egypt.

Editorial Board

Jayant Kumar

Department of Surgery and Cancer
Faculty of Medicine
Hammersmith Hospital
Imperial College London
UK

Ahmad Samer Al-Homsi

Professor of Clinical Medicine
Michigan State University College of Human Medicine
USA

Michele Molinari

Associate Professor of Surgery
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology
Dalhousie University
Canada


Xiao-Kang LI

Chief
Division of Transplantation Immunology
National Research Institute for Child Health and Development
Japan

Estela Paz Artal

Associate Professor
Department of Immunology
Complutense University
Spain

Paolo Bruzzone

Assistant Professor of Surgery
Sapienza Università di Roma
Italy


Thione Alessandro

Medical Doctor
Reconstructive Plastic Surgery and Cosmetic Surgery Unit
Hospital de Manises
Spain

Kuo-Shyang Jeng

Professor of Surgery
National Cheng Kung University
Taiwan

Hussien Elsiesy

Transplant Hepatologist
Department of Liver transplantation
King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre
Saudi Arabia


Jiahong Xia

Professor
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery
Central Hospital of Wuhan
China

Maria Luisa Pistorio

Department of Surgical Sciences Organs Transplantation and Advanced Technologies
University of Catania
Italy

Sasikanth Adigopula

Director of Heart Failure at Regional Medical Center
Division of Cardiology, Advanced Heart Failure and Heart Transplantation
Loma Linda University, CA
USA


Pamela S. Combs

Research Coordinator
Cardiac Surgery Clinical Research Center, Inc.
Oak Lawn, Illinois
USA

Mukesh Tiwari

Center for Diseases of the Pancreas
North Shore University Hospital
Manhasset, NY
USA

Dr. med. KAHRAMAN Alisan, M. D.

Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology University Hospital of Essen
Germany


Dr. Abdullah Almalki

Asst. Professor, Medicine & Nephrology, KSAU-HS
Section Head, Nephrology, KAMC, WR
Program Director, Nephrology Fellowship; SCFHS, WR Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

In Press

Volume 11, Issue 2


Immediately loaded post-extraction implant associated with connective grafting envelope-flap: a case report

Giuseppe Fiamminghi Daniele Pio Urbano Riccardo Botta Luca Vigano Cinzia Casu

Case Report-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

October 15, 2018


Current Issue

Volume 11, Issue 1


Optimization of quality parameters for human thymic cell samples stored in liquid nitrogen

Valentin P. Shichkin Oleksandr I. Gorbach Olga A. Zuieva Olga P. Martsenyuk

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

January 31, 2018


Post-transplant urinary leak; the perennial 'Achilles heel' in renal transplant surgery

Nalaka Gunawansa Ajay Sharma Ahmed Halawa

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

July 16, 2018


High-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic progenitor cells transplantation for relapsed or refractory hodgkin lymphoma: a follow up analysis of king hussein cancer center,results and prognostic variables

Halahleh Khalid Dahabreh Laith Manasrah Mohamad Sarrawi Hanadi Rihani Rawad Ma'kosa Mohammad Abu Jazara Husam Abdelghani Tbakhi Sarhan Mahmoud

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

July 16, 2018


Single shot medium dose melphalan in resistant/relapsed myeloma: a bridge to target therapies?

Cristina Clissa Federica Loscocco Alessandro Isidori Sara Barulli Lara Malerba Barbara Guiducci Giuseppe Visani

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

July 20, 2018


Effect of pre-transplant anaemia on perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and graft function in renal transplant patients

Ihab Abdel-Rahim Mohamed Ahmed Walaa M. El-Jack Quratulain Shaikh Nada Mohammed Al Bawardi Nazik Khalifa Eldaif Eltayeb Abdelrahman Musa Mohamed Elhazif Elsharif

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

August 13, 2018


Sirolimus vs mycophenolate moftile in Tacrolimus based therapy after induction with Antithymocyte globulin promote regulatory T cell expansion and inhibit RORγt and T-bet expression in kidney transplantation

Saeideh Jamali Abdolfatah Sarafnejad Pedram Ahmadpoor Mohsen nafar Mozhdeh Karimi Atefeh Eteghadi Mir Saeed Yekaninejad Ali Akbar Amirzargar

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

August 31, 2018


Archive


Volume 11

Optimization of quality parameters for human thymic cell samples stored in liquid nitrogen

Valentin P. Shichkin Oleksandr I. Gorbach Olga A. Zuieva Olga P. Martsenyuk

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

January 31, 2018


Post-transplant urinary leak; the perennial 'Achilles heel' in renal transplant surgery

Nalaka Gunawansa Ajay Sharma Ahmed Halawa

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

July 16, 2018


High-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic progenitor cells transplantation for relapsed or refractory hodgkin lymphoma: a follow up analysis of king hussein cancer center,results and prognostic variables

Halahleh Khalid Dahabreh Laith Manasrah Mohamad Sarrawi Hanadi Rihani Rawad Ma'kosa Mohammad Abu Jazara Husam Abdelghani Tbakhi Sarhan Mahmoud

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

July 16, 2018


Single shot medium dose melphalan in resistant/relapsed myeloma: a bridge to target therapies?

Cristina Clissa Federica Loscocco Alessandro Isidori Sara Barulli Lara Malerba Barbara Guiducci Giuseppe Visani

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

July 20, 2018


Effect of pre-transplant anaemia on perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and graft function in renal transplant patients

Ihab Abdel-Rahim Mohamed Ahmed Walaa M. El-Jack Quratulain Shaikh Nada Mohammed Al Bawardi Nazik Khalifa Eldaif Eltayeb Abdelrahman Musa Mohamed Elhazif Elsharif

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

August 13, 2018


Sirolimus vs mycophenolate moftile in Tacrolimus based therapy after induction with Antithymocyte globulin promote regulatory T cell expansion and inhibit RORγt and T-bet expression in kidney transplantation

Saeideh Jamali Abdolfatah Sarafnejad Pedram Ahmadpoor Mohsen nafar Mozhdeh Karimi Atefeh Eteghadi Mir Saeed Yekaninejad Ali Akbar Amirzargar

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

August 31, 2018


Volume 10

Identifying risk factors for graft loss within 90 days of kidney transplantation in the modern era: A review of single center and UNOS databases

Joseph T. Brooks Graham Mitro Kevin Becker Natasha Ahuja Bilel Gdoura Naoru Koizumi Michael Rees
Jorge Ortiz

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

August 25, 2017


Outcomes following Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation: Single Center Experience in Korea

Ji Soo Lee Kyeong Sik Kim Chan Woo Cho Kyo Won Lee Hyo Jun Park Jae Berm Park Sung Joo Kim

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

August 28, 2017


Pulmonary hypertension in renal transplant candidates: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence and a proposed algorithm for pre-transplant management

Ankush Moza Abdur R Khan Rohini Parashar Sobia Khan Samer J Khouri Jorge Ortiz Deepak K Malhotra
Michael A Rees George V. Moukarbel

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

September 07, 2017


Campath induction is associated with equalization of short term outcomes in renal retransplantion (but long-term outcomes are worse)

Andrew Kostiuk Emre Eren Graham Mitro Michael Rees Jorge Ortiz

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

September 14, 2017


IL-33 improves the suppressive capacity of human regulatory T cells

Tania Gajardo Mauricio Campos-Mora Karina Pino-Lagos

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

September 28, 2017


Immunosuppressive agents in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Eren Arslan Davulcu Filiz Vural

Short Communication-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

November 27, 2017


The effect of Monocarboxylate Transporter (MCT1) inhibitor, AR-C117977 on accelerated rejection of cardiac grafts in pre-sensitised rats and concordant xenotransplantation

Clara Paul Robert Bundick Robert Craggs David Donald Susan Edwards Elain Holness Agneta Montgomery Zhongquan Qi Henrik Ekberg Clare Murray

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

November 30, 2017


Pregnancy after orthotopic ovarian tissue transplantation using N-Hexyl-2-Cyanoacrylate as a tissue adhesive

Francisco Fàbregues Josep M. Calafell Dolors Manau Aina Borràs Joana Peñarrubia Gemma Casals Sara Peralta Montserrat Creus Janisse Ferreri Roser Solernou Francisco Carmona

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

December 29, 2017


Focusing lung transplant: physiological and antioxidant responses and effect of allopurinol to ischemia-reperfusion oxidative stress under different inspired oxygen concentrations

Silva FM Silveira RJ Cardoso JJ Fabíola Sell Parisotto EB Wilhelm Filho D

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

December 30, 2017


Successful development of vitrified embryonic kidney after laparoscopy transplantation into non-immunosuppressed hosts

Ximo Garcia-Dominguez Jose Salvador Vicente Cesar David Vera-Donoso Francisco Marco-Jiménez

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

April 07, 2017


Resource utilization of financially disadvantaged kidney transplant recipients

Ana Mae H. Quintal- Quetua Roy Diamond Arco Romina A. Danguilan

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

April 07, 2017


Long term graft and recipient outcome of deceased donor renal transplantation at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute

Mark Javeson C. Tam Concesa B. Cabanayan-Casasola Romina A.Danguilan

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

April 07, 2017


The impact of HLA-ABDR mismatch on acute rejection and graft function among Filipino kidney transplant recipients

Mel- Hatra I. Arakama Glenda Eleanor P. Pamugas Romina A. Danguilan

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

April 29, 2017


In-vivo hepatic procurement of tumor-free section followed by autotransplantation for large hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombi extending into the inferior vena cava

Young Seok Han

Case Report-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

May 04, 2017


Impact of younger donors on outcomes after living donor liver transplantation

Naoko Kamo Toshimi Kaido Shintaro Yagi Hideaki Okajima Shinji Uemoto

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

May 18, 2017


Monitoring of cellular biomarkers expression in stimulated peripheral T lymphocytes and liver transplant outcome

Francisco Boix Jorge Eguía González-Martínez G Jesús de la Peña Isabel Legaz José A. Galian Rafael Alfaro Antonio Hernández-Martínez María R. Moya-Quiles José A. Campillo Alfredo Minguela Santiago Llorente Manuel Muro

Short Communication-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

February 21, 2017


Intraperitoneal laparoscopic Mitrofanoff procedure: Ureterocutaneostomy concomitant nephrectomy in a child with kidney transplantation: First case report

Pierre Jean Aurelus Hermilo De La Cruz Yáñez Alfonso Yamamoto Nagano Amílcar Almonte Pineda Guillermo Godoy Rabago Juan Carlos Martínez Silva

Short Communication-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

February 21, 2017


10 year follow up in kidney transplant recipients with late CsA discontinuation

Michael M Kaabak Nadezda N Babenko Allan K Zokoev Valery A Sandrikov Stanislav V Schekaturov Yulia N Vyunkova Jeanna I Kurakina Victor A Goryainov Margaret M Morozova Elena N Platova Olga Dymova Vasilii V Panin

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

February 24, 2017


Graft versus host disease associated with blood transfusion

Anindya Gupta

Mini Review-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

March 03, 2017


Immediate outcome of day case laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Chandio A Khatoon Z Chandio K Naqvi SM Naqvi SA

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

March 27, 2017


Safe nutritional access in immunosuppressed transplant patients; Laparoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy feeding tube

Eric Hansen Conor O’Neill Carlos E. Marroquin

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

March 28, 2017


Early ureteric stent removal reduces urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients: A randomized controlled trial

Watanyu Parapiboon Keeratipon Wiengpon Chagriya Kitiyakara Bunyong Phakdeekitcharoen Charoen Leenanupunth Kongchareonsombat Wisoot Sopon Jirasiritham Vasant Sumethkul

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

December 09, 2016


Small bowel transplantation in rats, A multicenter experience summarizing the pitfalls to be overcome

Pablo Stringa Ane M. Andrés Moreno Natalia Lausada Cristina Pastor Oliver Juan C. Abate Martin Rumbo Marta Navarro Zorraquino Francisco Hernández Oliveros Gabriel Gondolesi

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

December 26, 2016


Effect of cell transplantation in a chronic case of traumatic brain injury

Alok Sharma Hemangi Sane Pooja Kulkarni Nandini Gokulchandran Dhanashree Sawant Samson Nivins Prerna Badhe

Case Report-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

January 13, 2017


16 cases of clinical treating experience after liver transplantation

Xue-rong He Jin Xia Xiao-Mei Wang Jian-ping Gong Ke You

Short Communication-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

January 12, 2017


Intrathecal delivery of bone marrow stem cells in ALS: A preliminary report

Hector R. Martinez David Gómez-Almaguer José Carlos Jaime-Pérez Leticia A. Olguín-Ramírez Rafael Naim G. Sarquis Rosario Salazar-Riojas Andrés Gómez-De Leon César E. Escamilla Ocañas Sergio Salazar Marioni

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

January 13, 2017


Association of leptin receptor gene polymorphisms with post-transplant diabetes mellitus: Short report and literature review

Jin Sug Kim Chun Gyoo Ihm Tae Won Lee Ju Young Moon Sang Ho Lee Joo-Ho Chung Su Kang Kim Yeong Hoon Kim Kyung Hwan Jeong

Review Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

January 30, 2017


Volume 9

Single lung transplantation has equivalent long term outcomes to bilateral lung transplantation in patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with advanced lung disease

Walker A. Julliard Keith C. Meyer Nilto C. De Oliveira Satoru Osaki Glen E. Leverson Richard D. Cornwell David A. Sonetti James D. Maloney

Case Report-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

Oct 17, 2016


Is day surgery safe in district general hospital? Audit of general surgical procedures in district general hospital

Chandio A Naqvi SA

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

November 18, 2016


A cocktail solution for the ex vivo preservation and perfusion of the lung; Shehata solution

Mohamed S. A. Mohamed

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

November 21, 2016


Sudden death in children with cardiac allograft vasculopathy

Borah J. Hong S. Kristen Sexson Tejtel Aamir Jeewa Antonio G. Cabrera Jack F. Price Jeffrey S. Heinle William J. Dreyer Susan W. Denfield

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

November 24, 2016


Disseminated ochroconis in lung transplant recipient

Supriya Bhat Maria Bembi Sivagini Ganesh Emily Blodget

Case Report-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

November 25, 2016


Renal transplantatıon and morbid obesity

Zerrin Ozcelik

Short Communication-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

November 28, 2016


Rat mesenchymal stem cells differentiate to endothelial cells after allotransplantation into the damaged nerve

E.S. Petrova E.N. Isaeva D.E. Korzhevskii

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

Aug 05, 2016


Hospital based initiative to decrease readmission rates in end-stage liver disease

Sheela S. Reddy Amy Javia Dina Halegoua-DeMarzio

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

Aug 18, 2016


Oral chronic graft-versus-host disease: A short review

Ricardo Hsieh Milena Monteiro de Souza Fernanda de PaulaWanessa Siqueira CavalcanteSilvia Vanessa Lourenço

Review Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

Aug 20, 2016


A systematic review and meta-analysis of the data behind current recommendations for corticosteroids for non-HIV related PCP; Knowing when you are on shaky foundations

Patil Injean Samantha J. Eells Hoover WuImani McElroyAric GregsonJames A. McKinnell

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

Aug 22, 2016


Sequential virus monitoring of pediatric patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by multiplex PCR method

Masayuki Nagasawa Noriko Mitsuiki Akifumi Endo Yuki Aoki Toshiaki Ono Takeshi Isoda Masatoshi Takagi Michiko Kajiwara Norio Shimizu Tomohiro Morio

Research Article-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

Aug 25, 2016


Is pneumatosis intestinalis a contraindication to allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation?

Antonietta Ferretti Salvatore Perrone Giovanni Fernando TorelliMaurizio Martelli Walter Barberi Alice Di Rocco Robin Foà Anna Paola Iori

Case Report-Trends-in-Transplantation(TiT)

Aug 29, 2016


Volume 8

Posttransplant Human Leukocyte Antigen Antibodies
in Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients

Gregor Bartel Georg A. Böhmig

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2014


Occurrence, Implications, and Risks of Late Sensitization
after Kidney Transplant Failure

Joshua J. Augustine Anne M. Huml Donald E. Hricik

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2014


De Novo Therapy with Everolimus and Low-Dose
Calcineurin Inhibitors in Kidney Transplantation

Alexander C. Wiseman

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2014


Obesity and Kidney Transplantation: Exploring Crosstalks
between Metabolism and Immune Responses

Markus Quante Timm Heinbokel Stefan G. Tullius

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2014


Alefacept Treatment in the Setting of Transplantation

Lionel Rostaing Nassim Kamar

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2014


Volume 7

Decrease in Marginal Zone B-cells (CD27+IgD+CD38–)
as Surrogate Marker of Rejection in Kidney
Transplant Recipients

David San Segundo Arribas Emilio Rodrigo Gema Fernández-Fresnedo Geovana Bonilla Olmos Manuel Arias Marcos López-Hoyos

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2013


Belatacept as Maintenance Immunosuppression
in Patients with Thrombotic Microangiopathy
and a Kidney Transplant

Mercedes Cabello Cristina Gutierrez Edisson Rudas Dolores Burgos Veronica López Elena Gutierrez
Miguel González-Molina Domingo Hernández

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2013


Prevalence of Chronic Renal Dysfunction in Maintenance
Kidney, Liver, Heart, and Lung Transplant Recipients -
ICEBERG Study

Josep M. Campistol Evaristo Varo Francisco González-Vilchez Amparo Solé Rafael Bañares José M. Arizón Felipe Zurbano Josep M. Grinyó on behalf of the ICEBERG Study Group

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2013


Acute Humoral Rejection in Renal Transplantation:
Experience in Children

Carmen García Meseguer Jorge Martinez Sáenz de Jubera Marta Melgosa Hijosa Carlota Fernández Camblor Antonia Peña Carrión Ángel Alonso Melgar J. Bravo Feito Laura Espinosa Román

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2013


Early Diagnosis of BK Virus Infection
and Kidney Allograft Prognosis

Eva Gavela Martínez Asunción Sancho Calabuig Julia Kanter Berga Guadalupe Zapatero Martínez Luis Manuel Pallardó Mateu

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2013


Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Detection
of Lymphocyte Subsets in Kidney Transplant Patients
Receiving Induction with Basiliximab or Thymoglobulin:
Impact on Kidney Function

Abelardo Caballero Pedro Ruiz Esteban Dolores Burgos Rodríguez Eulalia Palma Domingo Hernández Marrero

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2013


Low Grade Albuminuria Predicts Kidney Graft Loss
Independently of Renal Function

Elena Monfá Carmen Toyos Natalia Allende Emilio Rodrigo Juan Carlos Ruiz Gema Fernández-Fresnedo
Celestino Piñera Ángel Luis Martín de Francisco Manuel Arias Rodríguez

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2013


Desensitization Protocol in Highly Sensitized Renal
Transplant Patients

M.ª Luisa Rodríguez Ferrero David Arroyo Nayara Panizo Javier Reque Jose Luis Vicario Antonio Balas
Fernando Anaya

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2013


Prospective Validation of the Short Form Liver Disease
Quality of Life Questionnaire (SF-LDQOL): Specific Quality
of Life Test for Spanish Patients with Chronic Liver Disease
and Liver Transplantation

Teresa Casanovas Alejandra Chandía Joan-S. Vilallonga M.ª Carmen Peña-Cala M.ª Inés de la Iglesia Michael Herdman

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2013


Echocardiographic Changes after Conversion from
a Calcineurin Inhibitor to an Anti-Mammalian Target of
Rapamycin Drug in Nondiabetic Kidney Transplant Recipients

Pedro Ruiz Daniel Gaitán Auxiliadora Mazuecos Domingo Hernández

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2013


High Rate of Discontinuation of a Mammalian Target
of Rapamycin Inhibitor-based Regime During Long-term
Follow-up of Cardiac Transplant Recipients

José González-Costello Edgardo Kaplinsky Nicolás Manito Josep Roca Magdalena Nebot María José Barbosa Pilar Mañas Joel Salazar-Mendiguchía Albert Miralles Angel Cequier

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2013


Cytomegalovirus Infections in Everolimus-Based Treatment

Tainá Veras de Sandes-Freitas Cláudia Rosso Felipe Hélio Tedesco-Silva

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2013


Long-Term Outcome of Combined Liver-Kidney (Simultaneous
or Sequential) Transplantation in Spain, 1991-2007

Domingo del Castillo Alejandra Otero Oriol Bestard Nuria Esforzado María Luisa González-Diéguez Lluís Castells Juan José Amenabar Ángel Moya-Herraiz Teresa Casanovas-Taltavull Carme Cantarell on behalf of the PERLA study group

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2013


Skin Cancer after Renal Transplantation

Robert P. Carroll Graeme R. Russ

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2013


Posttransplant Limphoproliferative Disease

Néstor Y. Rodríguez Iván Dlouhy Armando López-Guillermo

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2013


Long-Term Benefits and Risks of Early Conversion from Calcineurin Inhibitors to Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitors and Steroid Withdrawal

Philippe Gatault Yvon Lebranchu

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2013


Volume 6

Announcement

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2012


Hand Transplantation

Stefan Schneeberger Theresa Hautz Robert Sucher WP Andrew Lee Johann Pratschke Gerald Brandacher

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2012


Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome after Kidney Transplantation:
Therapeutic Alternatives

Miquel Blasco Pelicano Carlos Eduardo Durán

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2012


Early Conversion from a Calcineurin Inhibitor-Based
Regimen to Everolimus-Based Immunosuppression
after Kidney Transplantation

Hallvard Holdaas

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2012


Impact of Donor Age on Liver Transplants

M.a Trinidad Serrano Aulló Estela Solanas Villacampa Agustin Garcia-Gil

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2012


Volume 5

Induction Therapy in Solid Organ Transplantation

Amado Andrés

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2011


Induction Therapy in Renal Transplantation

Amado Andrés

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2011


Induction Therapy in Hepatic Transplantation

Laura Lladó

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2011


Induction Therapy in Lung Transplantation

José María Borro Amparo Solé

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2011


Induction Therapy in Heart Transplantation

Nicolás Manito Juan Francisco Delgado Luis Almenar María Generosa Crespo Leiro

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2011


Early Steroid Withdrawal in Pediatric Renal Transplantation

Ryszard Grenda

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2011


Receiving a Kidney Transplant in the Ninth Decade of Life

Edmund Huang Suphamai Bunnapradist

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2011


Coronary Artery Disease in Candidates
for Kidney Transplantation:
Should We Do Pre-Emptive Revascularization?

Jose Jayme G. De Lima Luis Henrique W. Gowdak Flavio J. de Paula

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2011


Recurrence of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
after Liver Transplantation

Mohamad H. Imam Jayant A. Talwalkar Keith D. Lindor

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2011


Proteinuria and Mammalian Target
of Rapamycin Inhibitors in Renal Transplantation

Fritz Diekmann

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2011


Colorectal Cancer after Kidney Transplantation:
Risks and Implications for Screening and Early Detection

Germaine Wong Maria N. Martina Jeremy R. Chapman

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2011


The Risks and Benefits of Early Steroid Withdrawal

Arthur J. Matas Thomas M. Suszynski Michael D. Rizzari

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2011


The Risks and Benefits of Late Steroid Withdrawal

Julio Pascual

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2011


Influence of Genetic Polymorphisms on Renal Allografts:
Role of Immunological and Non-Immunological
Genetic Variants

Gaurav Tripathi Manuel Arias Minal Borkar Gema Fernandez-Fresnedo Marcos López-Hoyos

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2011


Optimization of Therapy with Mycophenolic Acid
After Kidney Transplantation

Marcel R.G. Naik Petra Glander Klemens Budde

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2011


A Risk Prediction Model for Delayed Graft Function
in Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

William D. Irish

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2011


Proteinuria as a Prognostic Factor for Graft
and Patient Survival after Kidney Transplantation

Félix Cantarovich

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2011


Combination of a Calcineurin Inhibitor
and a Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitor:
Not So Nephrotoxic As We Thought?

Helio Tedesco Silva Junior

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2011


Volume 4

Beta-Cell Replacement by Transplantation
in Diabetes Mellitus: When Pancreas, When Islets,
and How To Allocate the Pancreas?

David E.R. Sutherland Dixon B. Kaufmann

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2010


Cytomegalovirus and Development of Cardiac Allograft
Vasculopathy: Evidences and Therapeutic Implications

Luciano Potena Hannah A. Valantine

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2010


Calcineurin Inhibitor-Free Maintenance Therapy After
Liver Transplantation I: Mycophenolate Mofetil

Lydia Barrera-Pulido José María Álamo-Martínez Miguel Ángel Gómez-Bravo Carmen Bernal-Bellido
Luis Miguel Marín-Gómez Gonzalo Suárez-Artacho Juan Serrano-Díez Canedo Francisco Javier Padillo-Ruiz

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2010


Living Donor Liver Transplantation

Juan Carlos García-Valdecasas Itxarone Bilbao Aguirre Ramón Charco Torra Constantino Fondevila Campo
Josep Fuster Obregón Paloma Jara Vega Rafael López Andújar Pedro López Cillero Juan Carlos Meneu-Díaz
Miguel Navasa Anadón Fernando Pardo Sánchez

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2010


Kidney Transplantation from Donors with a Positive
Serology for Hepatitis C: The Facts and the Challenges

Beatriz Domínguez-Gil Nuria Esforzado Amado Andrés Jose M. Campistol Jose M. Morales

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2010


Prevention of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy
in Heart Transplantation

Ingo Kaczmarek Andrés Beiras-Fernández Peter Ueberfuhr

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2010


Immunosuppressive Strategies in Liver Transplantation
for Hepatitis C

Timothy M Clifford Michael F Daily Roberto Gedaly

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2010


Cytomegalovirus in the Elderly: Impact of Cytomegalovirus
Infection on Senescence of the Immune System

Inmaculada Gayoso Alejandra Pera Sara Cantisán Rafael Solana Julián Torre-Cisneros

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2010


Biomarkers of Tolerance in Transplantation: Hope or hype?

Rachel Hilton María P. Hernández-Fuentes

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2010


Liver Transplantation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

José Fuster Constantino Fondevila Santiago Sánchez David Calatayud

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2010


How to Grade Immunological Risk Using Sensitive HLA
Donor-Specific Antibodies Detection Techniques

Carmen Lefaucheur Denis Glotz

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2010


Proton Pump Inhibitors and Their Interaction
with the Immunosuppressant Mycophenolate

Sieglinde Kofler Gerhard Steinbeck Bruno Reichart Ingo Kaczmarek

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2010


Epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease
in Renal Transplantation

Roberto Marcén Ana Fernández-Rodríguez Cristina Galeano

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2010


Impact and Prevention of Late Acute Rejection
in Liver Transplant Recipients

Santiago Tome Evaristo Varo

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2010


Strategies for Preventing Late-Onset Cytomegalovirus
Disease in Organ Transplant Recipients

Oriol Manuel Manuel Pascual

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2010


Volume 3

Monitoring Regulatory T-Cells after Transplantation:
Is It Useful?

Kathryn Brown Wilson Wong

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2009


The Myth of Bioequivalence

Heidi M. Schaefer J. Harold Helderman

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2009


Anemia after Kidney and Other Solid Organ Transplantation

Mariarosaria Campise

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2009


The Importance of Preserving Kidney Function
after Heart Transplantation

Luis Almenar Bonet Josep Navarro-Manchón Luis Martínez-Dolz

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2009


Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus Infection
in Pediatric Liver Transplants

Esteban Frauca Loreto Hierro Paloma Jara

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2009


Chronic Renal Failure after Transplantation
of a Nonrenal Organ

Silas P. Norman Akinlolu O. Ojo

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2009


Impact and Benefits of the MELD Scoring System
for Liver Allocation

Richard B. Freeman Jr

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2009


Corticosteroid-free Immunosuppression
in Liver Transplantation

John G. O’Grady

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2009


Polyomavirus BK after Kidney Transplantation –
Role of Molecular and Immunologic Markers

Adrian Egli Alexis Dumoulin Sabrina Köhli Hans H. Hirsch

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2009


Immunologic Response and Pathogenic Mechanisms
of Cytomegalovirus Infection in Transplant Recipients

Julio César Medina Graciela Pérez-Sartori Raúl Caltenco-Serrano José María Aguado

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2009


Transplantation Tolerance: From Bench to Bedside

Dela Golshayan Manuel Pascual

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2009


Early or Late Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal
and Mycophenolate Mofetil-Based Immunosuppression

Ravinder K. Wali Matthew R. Weir

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2009


Long-term Immunisuppression in Pediatric Liver Transplantation

Paloma Jara Loreto Hierro

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2009


Molecular Testing for Early Detection and Monitoring
of Graft Rejection by Heart Transplant Recipients

María G. Crespo-Leiro María J. Paniagua-Martín Manuel Hermida-Prieto

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2009


Assessing the Full Impact of the Indirect Effects
of Cytomegalovirus Following Solid Organ Transplantation

Gaia Nebbia Vincent C. Emery

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2009


Volume 2

Impact of Pharmacogenetics
and Pharmacodynamics on Transplantation

Mercè Brunet Nerea Urtasun Olga Millán

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2008


Is Tolerance in Renal Transplantation Possible?

Parveen Dhaliwal Simon Janes Kathryn Wood

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2008


Long-Term Effects of Calcineurin Inhibitors
on Renal Function After Liver Transplantation

Georges-Philippe Pageaux Héla Audin-Mamlouk Michael Bismuth

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2008


Cardiovascular Risk Factors
in Cardiac Transplant Recipients

Michelle M. Kittleson Jon A. Kobashigawa

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2008


Bidirectional Interaction between Cytomegalovirus
and Hepatitis C Virus after Liver Transplantation:

Twinkle K. Pandian Raymund R. Razonable

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2008


Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Mycophenolic
Acid: Different Formulations in Stable Renal Transplant

Dario Cattaneo

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2008


Cardiovascular Risk in Renal Transplantation

Bengt C. Fellström Halvard Holdaas Alan G. Jardine

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2008


Quality of Life as an Indicator of the Effectiveness
of Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation

Pilar Isla Pera Joaquin Moncho Vasallo Alberto Torras Rabasa María José Ricart Brulles

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2008


Adult Liver Transplantation in HIV-1 Infected Patients

Fernando Agüero Montserrat Laguno Montserrat Tuset Carlos Cervera Asunción Moreno Juan-Carlos García-Valdecasas Antonio Rimola José M. Miró the Hospital Clinic OLT in HIV

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2008


Optimal Length of Valganciclovir Prophylaxis after Solid
Organ Transplantation

Albert J. Eid Carlos V. Paya Raymund R. Razonable

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2008


Chronic Allograft Nephropathy (CAN) – An Update

Thomas Oates Behdad Afzali David Goldsmith

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2008


Alemtuzumab as Induction Therapy
in Renal Transplantation

Menna R. Clatworthy Christopher J.E. Watson

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2008


Small Bowel Transplantation: How Successful Can It Be?

Sven Kohler Johann Pratschke Peter Neuhaus Andreas Pascher

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2008


Understanding the Molecular Mechanisms Involved
in Indirect Effects of Cytomegalovirus

Cecilia Söderberg-Nauclér Mensur Dzabic Afsar Rahbar

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2008


Volume 1

New Considerations for Chronic Kidney Allograft Injury

Julio Pascual Arjang Djamali Brenda Muth R. Michael Hofmann Milagros Samaniego Bryan Becker

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2007


Impact of Posttransplant Diabetes Mellitus
on Outcome After Transplantation

Mariarosaria Campise

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2007


Non-HLA Antibody Induced Agonism on the Angiotensin II
Type 1 Receptor in Renal Allograft Vascular Injury

Duska Dragun

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2007


Immune Response and Immunosuppressive Therapy
in Elderly Kidney Transplant Recipients

Miguel González Molina

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2007


Interactions between Cytomegalovirus and Other Viruses
(HHV6, HHV7, HCV and EBV) in Transplantation – a Review

Julio C. Medina Graciela Pérez-Sartori José M. Aguado

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

December, 2007


The Use of Biomarkers in Clinical Transplant Tolerance

Joanna Ashton-Chess Jean-Paul Soulillou Sophie Brouard

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2007


Impact of Subclinical Rejection on Transplantation

David N. Rush

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2007


ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation:
Overview and New Strategies

Gunnela Nordén Michael E. Breimer

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2007


Recurrent Hepatitis C After Liver Transplantation:
Immunosuppression and Histologic Course

Marcus Bahra Ulf P. Neumann

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2007


Benefits of CMV Prophylaxis in Solid Organ Transplantation

Marcelino González Padilla Juan José Castón Osorio Sara Cantisán Bohórquez Antonio Rivero Román Julián Torre-Cisneros

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

August, 2007


Editorial

J.M. Campistol F. Diekmann

Editorial-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2007


Renal Transplantation and Cancer:
Focus on Immunosuppressive Therapy

Alex Gutiérrez-Dalmau Ignacio Revuelta J.M. Campistol

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2007


Minimization or Withdrawal of Immunosuppression
in Liver Transplantation

Alberto Sánchez-Fueyo

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2007


Why and How to Perform Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
for Mycophenolate Mofetil

Brenda de Winter Teun van Gelder

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2007


Valganciclovir: Dosing Strategies
for Effective Cytomegalovirus Prevention

Mark D. Pescovitz

Review Article-Trends in Transplantation (TiT)

April, 2007


External Databases & Indexes


  • Publons
  • ResearchBib
  • EBSCO
  • Google Scholar
  • Crossref
  • Worldcat
  • MIAR
  • Genamics JournalSeek

Submit Manuscript


Trends in Transplantation welcomes direct submissions from authors: Attach your word file with e- mail and send it to submissions@oatext.com alternatively to: editor.jto@oatext.com

Please, follow the Instructions for Authors. In the cover letter add the name and e-mail address of 5 proposed reviewers (we can choose them or not).

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For Authors


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In general the Manuscripts are classified in to following groups based on the criteria noted below. The author(s) are encouraged to request a particular classification upon submitting (please include this in the cover letter); however the Editor and the Associate Editor retain the right to classify the manuscript as they see fit, and it should be understood by the authors that this process is subjective to some degree. The chosen classification will appear in the printed manuscript above the manuscript title.

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Trends in Transplantation is an Open Access journal and we do not charge the end user when accessing a manuscript or any article. This allows the scientific community to view, download, distribution of an article in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited, under the term of "Creative Commons Attribution License". In line with other open access journals we provide a flat fee submission structure on the acceptance of a peer-reviewed article which covers in part the entirety of the publication pathway (the article processing charge). The process includes our maintenance, submission and peer review systems and international editing, publication and submission to global indexing and tracking organisations and archiving to allow instant access to the whole article and associated supplementary documents. We also have to ensure enough investment to secure a sustainable model which ethically, legally and financially stable.

The publication charges for Trends in Transplantation are GBP 2599.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Why are your charges set at these levels?

All articles published in OA Text are open access. Open Access publishing implies that all readers, anywhere in the world, are allowed unrestricted to full text of articles, immediately on publication in OA Text Journals. The Article Publication Charges pay for the editorial and production costs of the journal, for hosting the website, publishing articles online, preparing HTML , PDF and XML versions of the articles and submitting the articles in electronic citation database like CrossRef.

Our financial goals are to:

  • Recover capitalization costs;
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  • Bend the publication-charge cost downward over time.

Who will pay the APC?

Corresponding author or Co-authors has to make the payment on acceptance of the article.

When should I pay?

Corresponding author or the paying institutions should arrange for the payment once they are notified regarding acceptance of the article. APC is exempted for cases in which a wavier agreement has been made in-prior to submission.

*We request an immediate attention towards the payment as the articles will not be published unless the charges have been paid.

How do I pay?

Authors or institutions can make payments by two modes as per their convenience.

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Note: No taxes are included in this charge, taxes will be applicable as per the policies of the country of the payee. Additional transaction charges may be levied on the author.

Can I be eligible for wavier on APC?

The waiver request will be considered on a case-by-case basis, and will be provided accordingly.

*The Waiver requests must be made during the submission process and will not be accepted after  processing of the manuscript.

Do I have to pay if my manuscript is rejected?

No, Article processing charges will not be applicable for articles rejected by the Editorial office.

Withdrawal Charges

Are reprints of my article included in the article processing charges (APCs)?

No, Article processing charges (APCs) do not include the charges for the reprints. Reprints facility is optional and should be order separately.

Open Access Text is committed to providing high quality articles and uphold the publication ethics to advance the intellectual agenda of science. We expect our authors to comply with, best practice in publication ethics as well as in quality of their articles.

Few of the authors request withdrawal of manuscript from the publication process after submission or after publication. In some instances the request for withdrawal is made when the manuscript is only a few days away from publication in the journal. This may cause the time waste by the editors, reviewers and the editorial staff.

To evade gratuitous withdrawal of manuscripts OA text declared the below withdrawal policy. The corresponding author or co authors should address the below statement before sending a request for withdrawal.

  • All authors include corresponding and co authors should confirm the number of authors, authorship, approval and integrity of the manuscript before submission. In case of any differences of opinion, address the concerns of all the authors before submitting the manuscript for publication.
  • Research students or Researchers should take prior permission from their guides and professors before sending/submitting their manuscripts in OA text journals.
  • Authors should follow the publication ethics (details are included in our Publication ethics page: http://www.oatext.com/PublicationEthics.php)
  • Manuscript is appropriately withdrawn from any previous publisher (if submitted).
  • It is unacceptable to withdraw a manuscript  from a journal because it is being accepted by another journal.
  • Before submitting the manuscript authors should carefully check the facts and data presented in the manuscripts are accurate and error-free.
  • All authors need agree for publishing the articles on the specific journal before submission.

Unethical withdrawal

Advanced stage in the editorial process, when peer reviews were near completion was unacceptable unless there are compelling reasons.

If the author withdraws a manuscript after publication, the article publication charges, if paid by the authors, will not be refunded.

If the authors do not reply to communication from the editorial office, even after multiple reminders, at any stage of the publication process; OA text Journals holds all rights to disclose the conduct of the authors and content of the manuscript without further approval from the authors, and cannot be held responsible for the consequences arising from it.

Withdrawal of a manuscript will be permitted only for the most compelling and unavoidable reasons. For withdrawal of a manuscript authors need to submit an "Article withdrawal Form", signed by all authors mentioning the reason for withdrawal to the Editorial Office. The form is available from the editorial office of the journal. Authors must not assume that their manuscript has been withdrawn until they have received appropriate notification to this effect from the editorial office.

In a case where a manuscript has taken more than six months time for review process, that allows the author to withdraw manuscript without paying any charges.

Manuscript withdrawal charges

The author is allowed to withdraw the manuscript without paying any withdrawal penalty, if the author(s) requests a withdrawal of manuscript, within 48 hours of submission.

If the author(s) requests a withdrawal of manuscript, after the peer review process or in the production stage (Early Release or Ahead of publishing) or published online; then authors need to make a withdrawal penalty.

OA text Journal Editorial Office will provide the corresponding author a formal letter of Manuscript Withdrawal. Withdrawal of manuscripts is only allowed after withdrawal penalty has been fully paid to the OA text Editorial Office.

As per the policy, we declare that the withdrawal charges are applicable in case of withdrawal.

Withdrawal form

If the author wish to withdraw paper from a journal, author needs to submit an " Article withdrawal Form" signed by all authors (or) the corresponding author of the manuscript stating the reasons for manuscript withdrawal. The form is available from the Editorial Office of the journal.

Submission Instructions

General Instructions for Figures

  • Include relevant clinical, radiological and pathological images with the manuscript to give it a visual accept and increase the impact of your work on the readers.
  • The following file formats are accepted for figures submitted to OA Text: JPEG, PNG, TIFF, BMP, GIF, and Power Point
  • Make all effort to preserve the anonymity of the patients. if photographs of an individual is used in which a person can be identified, written informed consent must be obtained and submitted to the Editorial Office. This permission is separate from the permission taken from the patient to publish the case.
  • If you include text or figures that have been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission is separate from the permission taken from the patient to publish the case.
  • If you include text or figures that have been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s). All expenses for obtaining such permission will have to be paid by the authors(s). If you are unable to pay for obtaining permission to use previously published work, we suggest that you use other work available free to refer and cite in your manuscript.
  • Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text.
  • Mention the figure numbers in the text at the appropriate places in parenthesis before the punctuation marks. e.g. (Figure 1) or (Figure 1A, 2) or (Figure 1A, 1C, 3-5) or (Figures 1-3) or (Figures 1,4-6)
  • Do not include images in the main manuscript text file.
  • All figures should be provided as separate files.
  • Includecolor figures wherever possible.
  • The file name should include the figure number. Label file names as:Figure1, Figure2 etc. If multiple figures form a part of a sequence label them as Figure 1(A), Figure 1(B) etc.
  • Figure files should have a minimum of 300 pixels per inch (ppi) if in color or halftone, or at 1200 ppi if as line art. Digital scanned line drawings should have a minimum resolution of 800 dpi. Figures containing color should be in RGB (millions of colors), 8 bits per channel. No other color space is allowed, such as CMYK, indexed, or bitmap. Save grayscale or RGB files with a depth of 8 bits per channel, not 16.
  • Try to keep all images separate. You do not need to combine multiple images into a single image.
  • If it is necessary to combine multiple figures into one composite figure, figure parts should be denoted on the figure by uppercase letters (A, B, C etc.). Label each figure in the lower left hand corner (for Figure 1(A), label figure as 'A', for Figure 1(B), label figure as 'B',without quotes). Labels should not include the word'Figure'. The size of the letters should be large enough to be easily visible. Use font color so that letters contrast with the background. Keep letters of a consistent size in all the figures. You can use symbols, arrows or letters in the figures to indicate important areas or parts. Do not put the title of figures or explanations on the figure. Mention them in the figure legends.
  • If a figure has been published elsewhere, you will have to submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the materials at the time of submitting the Author Agreement Form.
  • Please provide figure legends on a separate page with Arabic numerals corresponding to the figures.
  • The legend should be included in the manuscript text file immediately following the references.
  • Give a good description of the figure. When arrows, symbols or letter are used to identify parts of figure, identify and explain each one in the legend. Give the magnification and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.
  • Figure legend should begin with term 'Figure' followed by figure number (e.g. 'Figure 1').
  • Do not use any abbreviations unless their full forms are given (excluding common abbreviations such as names of antibodies.)
  • Text within a figure should be Arial, Times, and/or Symbol 6-12 point to ensure legibility. EPS text in other fonts may be lost or render improperly, so should be converted to outlines. Do not include author names, article title, or figure number/title/caption within figure files.
  • Create figures with a white background. Figures with a transparent background may not display well online.
  • Figures should be cropped to minimize surrounding white space. A 2-point white space border around each figure is recommended to prevent inadvertent cropping of content at layout.
  • TIFF files with multiple layers are not acceptable. Figures with a single layer named “layer 1” or “layer 0” are in fact “layered.” Please provide a flattened version of any multiply layered file.
  • If you use excel to generate your graph, avoid 3D, crowded axes, colored background, strong grid etc.. Use Tahoma font (size 10 maximum) for all items in your graphs (Title, legend, axes etc..). Expand your Excel graph to obtain a large image, copy and paste it in Paint (Microsoft Paint), crop any white border and save the image as PNG or JPEG. Submit this image for your manuscript
  • If you plan on submitting a stereogram as one of your figures, make sure this is clearly mentioned in the caption for the figure within the manuscript. Stereograms must be sized so that the centers of each of these images are 63 mm apart. Make sure that the stereogram figure is at the size you would like them to display.
  • The journal reserves the right to modify, crop, rotate, reduce, or enlarge the photographs to an acceptable size.

Table Preparation

  • The table numbers should be cited at the relevant places in the text in parenthesis after the punctuation mark .e.g. (Table 1) or (Tables 1-4) or (Tables 1,3,6-8).
  • We impose no limit on the number of tables submitted, but we do require that all tables—main or supplemental—be well described. Good metadata are key to discoverability and usefulness.
  • Each table should be numbered in the order of first citation in the text, using Arabic numerals, e.g. Table 1.
  • You will need to send your original, editable files (e.g. in Microsoft Word or Excel). This will reduce the likelihood of errors being introduced during production of your article.
  • Non-editable files (e.g. JPEG or TIFF images, or images of text boxes in PowerPoint) are not suitable formats but can be included in addition to the editable files for reference.
  • Each table should appear on separate page.
  • A title for every table which summarizes the whole table must be given above the table.
  • Please present table titles separately for each table, rather than including them as the first row of the table. Table notes should be separate from the titles and included underneath the table to which they apply.
  • Tables should present new information rather than duplicating what is in the text. Readers should be able to interpret the table without reference to the text.
  • Tables should be self-explanatory and not duplicate the data presented in figures.
  • Tables do not have strict dimension requirements. However, some wide tables may be printed sideways in the PDF version of the article. Very large tables may span more than one page in the PDF.
  • When submitting multiple tables, consistency in presentation is advised where possible.
  • Kindly prepare tables using the table function of word processing program like Microsoft Word. Do not use spaces or table for making tables.
  • Charts should be sent as Excel or PowerPoint files.
  • Place explanations, comments and full form of non-standard abbreviations in footnotes below each table.
  • If some materials have been taken from previously published literature, give the reference at the end of table caption, and include the citation in the list of references at appropriate places.
  • Please note that color, shading, vertical rules, and other cell borders are not compatible with our publishing requirements. Where necessary please use notes, italics, or bold text for emphasis with accompanying footnotes explaining their significance.
  • Where superscript notes are used, the letters should follow alphabetical order from the top left of the table to the bottom right. All statistical significance notes should be represented in the table, or deleted. Please also add notes explaining any acronyms or abbreviations in table titles or column headings.
  • When representing information numerically, use as many decimal places as is appropriate for your purposes. This number should be consistent throughout the column, or table if possible.
  • The text in your table will be copy-edited to match the style of the journal.
  • Refer to each table in the text.
  • If you are sending tables in a separate file, insert a note in the text indicating the preferred location for each table, e.g. [t]Table 1 near here[/t].
  • Supplemental tables referenced within the text, but not integrated into the PDF version of the article. Supplemental material provides readers with additional information that enhances the main text but is not critical to its assertions. (For detailed information, please see Supplemental Material & Data.)

Requirements

Tables must

  • -be cell-based (e.g., created in Word with Tables tool (preferred), Rich Text, or LaTex;
  • -be editable (i.e., not a graphic object);
  • -be organized with rows and columns, not with returns, spaces, or tabs;
  • -have heading/subheading levels in separate columns;
  • -multi-part tables with varying numbers of columns or multiple footnote sections should be divided and renumbered as separate tables.

Tables must not:

  • -use returns or tabs within a cell;
  • -have color or shading;
  • -use lines, rules, or borders;
  • -contain spaces within cells to align text;
  • -have vertically merged cells (horizontally merged cells are fine);
  • -have inserted text boxes or pictures;
  • -contain tables within tables or cells within cells;
  • -include empty columns, rows, or cells to create spacing;
  • -include hyperlinked text.
  • If your submitted table contains any of these elements, they will be returned for adjustments.

Supplemental Material Submission Instructions

Deposit of Primary Data

Supplemental Material Submission Instructions

What to Submit as Supplemental Material

Supporting material that cannot be included, and which is not essential for inclusion, in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader. It should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that are additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Authors are encouraged to take advantage of the opportunity to submit Supplementary data whenever appropriate; for example, when the amount of material is too great to warrant inclusion in the main body of the paper, or when the material is in a format that cannot be represented in print (i.e. video clips or animated graphics). Please note that atomic co-ordinates used to create molecular models described in a manuscript, unless deposited in a publicly available database, must be made available as Supplementary data.

All material to be considered as Supplementary data must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. Please indicate clearly the material intended as Supplementary data upon submission. Also ensure that the Supplementary data is referred to in the main manuscript at an appropriate point in the text. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication. [Supporting material that has not been peer reviewed will not be published as Supplementary data (so will not be designated 'S' in the Table of Contents), but can be made available through a link to the author's home page, at the discretion of the Executive Editor handling the paper. The word 'Supplementary' must not be used to describe this material. Please use words such as 'Supporting material' or 'Additional material'.

Supplementary data should be submitted in a separate file(s), in its final form. Please note that Supplementary data will not be edited, so ensure that it is clearly and succinctly presented, and that the style of terms conforms to the rest of the paper. Also ensure that the presentation will work on any internet browser.

Note: Supplementary data is considered as published material and is regulated by the same copyright and permissions rules as the published article to which it belongs.

Metadata

Although we do not limit the number or type of Supplemental Material items authors may include, we do require that they provide a relevant and useful expansion of the article, and that they be as well described as are figures and tables included within the body of the article. Good metadata of this material are key to discoverability and usefulness. All Supplemental Material should include the following:

  • Type and number: Supplemental material can be named in almost any way, provided that the files are consistently named, and numbers are preceded by “S” and closed with a period. Examples:
    • Figure S1.
    • Table S1.
    • Text S1.
    • Video S1.
    • Animation S1.
    • Alternative Language Abstract S1.
  • Figures, Tables, Videos, Animations should be provided with titles should be no more than 15 words and set in bold type, using sentence case.
  • Supplemental material figures and tables should follow the requirements for main-text figures and tables (seeFigure PreparationandTable Preparation).
  • Other types of supplementary material files should include a caption of no more than 300 words should, describing the key message of the figure/video/animation in such a way that readers can interpret the file without referring to the text.
  • Citation In-Text

    All Supplementary data MUST be referred to in the main manuscript at an appropriate point in the text, just as main text figures and tables. This offers readers context and allows for seamless interlinking. Text citations should use the appropriate type and number designation (e.g., Video S1). Supplementary data should be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. Such data should consist of electronic files and should not merely be a link to another web site.

    Acceptable formats

    The supplementary data should preferably be saved as one single PDF file, including all text, figures, tables and legends. If this is not possible, a maximum of 10 files is acceptable to make up the supplementary data unit for the article.We prefer that Supplemental Material files not exceed 10MB. However, if that size limit results in a loss of quality (e.g., by making the dimensions smaller or compressing a movie in such a way as to compromise image quality), we can accept larger files.

    Text files

    Supplementary text should be submitted as text files in MS Word (.doc), HTML (.php) or RTF (.rtf) format.And should be mentioned appropriately in text.

    Spreadsheet files in MS Excel (.xls) or CSV format. Where possible, combine all tables into a single Excel workbook, saving individual tables on separate clearly labelled worksheets (tabs).

    Figures

    Supplemental figures should be submitted as separate tif, gif or jpg files at a minimum resolution of 300 ppi, just as with main figures (please see ourFigure Preparationsection for detailed instructions on figure preparation).

    Videos & audio clips

    For videos, please try to submit videos &audio clips of reasonable quality. We highly recommend videos to be submitted in MP4 formatand audio clips in mp3 format.Whatever format you use, videos must open and play in either QuickTime Player v. 7.6.2 or Windows Media Player v. 11.

    Authors who have video and/or audio clips that they wish to submit their article are strongly encouraged to include these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the multimedia content and noting in the body text where it should be placed with its associated caption.

    Help

    If you require further help or information regarding submission or preparation of Supplementary data, pleaseinfo@oatext.com

Deposit of Primary Data

An inherent principle of publication is that others should be able to replicate and build upon the authors' published claims. Therefore, a condition of publication in a OA Text journal is that authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to readers without undue qualifications. Any restrictions on the availability of materials or information must be disclosed to the editors at the time of submission. Any restrictions must also be disclosed in the submitted manuscript, including details of how readers can obtain materials and information. If materials are to be distributed by a for-profit company, this must be stated in the paper.

Data sets will be made freely available to readers from the date of publication, and must be provided to editors and peer-reviewers at submission, for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript.

For the following types of data set, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory. Accession numbers must be provided in the paper. Examples of appropriate public repositories are listed below.

Deposition of sequence and structural data

Sequence information, co-ordinates used to create molecular models described in a manuscript, and structural data must be submitted in electronic form, prior to acceptance, to the appropriate database for release no later than the date of publication of the corresponding article in the Journal. Deposition numbers and/or accession numbers provided by the database should be included in the manuscript and entered into the relevant boxes during online submission or communicated to the Executive Editor handling the manuscript as soon as received. In cases where there may be no appropriate database, authors must make their data available on request. Atomic co-ordinates may be included in the publication as supplementary material. Manuscripts will not be published until the Journal is in receipt of the deposition number.

For papers reporting novel nucleic acid sequences

Nucleic acid sequence information must be deposited with one of the three major collaborative databases (EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ). For sequences obtained from a public or private web site, it is the author's responsibility to ensure that any sequence used within the manuscript is deposited before publication. It is necessary to submit sequences to one database only since data are exchanged between EMBL, GenBank and DDBJ on a daily basis. New sequence names and their accession numbers should be listed at the beginning of the Materials and Methods section to aid searches by readers. In order to allow new methods of data search,NAR encourages authors to cite GenBank accession numbers when referring to established sequences within their manuscript.

For Illumina-type sequencing, authors are encouraged to submit raw Illumina data to the NCBI’s Sequence Read Archive, and to include corresponding accession numbers in the manuscript.

For papers reporting novel Macromolecular structures

Authors of papers describing structures of biological macromolecules must provide atomic coordinates and related experimental data (structure factor amplitudes/intensities for crystal structures, or restraints for NMR structures) upon request of editors for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript, if they are not already freely accessible in a publicly available and recognized database (for example,Protein DataBank,Uniprot,Nucleic Acids DatabaseorBiological Magnetic Resonance Databank). Electron microscopy-derived density maps and coordinate data must be deposited inEMDB.

Crystallographic data for small molecules

Manuscripts reporting new three-dimensional structures of small molecules from crystallographic analysis should include a .cif file and a structural figure with probability ellipsoids for publication as Supplementary Information. The structure factors for each structure should also be submitted. Both the strucure factors and the structural output must have been checked using the IUCR's CheckCIF routine, and a PDF copy of the output must be included at submission, together with a justification for any alerts reported. Crystallographic data for small molecules should be submitted to the Cambridge Structural Database and the deposition number referenced appropriately in the manuscript. Full access must be provided on publication.

Databases: The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) is appropriate for deposition of data on nucleosides, nucleotides and other small molecules.

A member site of theWorldwide Protein Data Bank:RCSB PDB,Protein Databank in Europe (PDBe),Protein Databank in Japan (PDBj), orBMRBis appropriate for deposition of data on proteins determined by X-ray crystallography and for all macromolecules determined by NMR methods.

The Nucleic Acid Database (NDB) is appropriate for atomic co-ordinate and structure factor data for crystal structures of nucleic acids. This can generally be handled by the Worldwide Protein Data Bank or RCSB Protein Data Bank described above.

NMR papers: Resonance assignments should be reported relative to DSS and not to HOD.

For papers reporting novel protein sequences

Protein sequences, which have been determined by direct sequencing of the protein, must be submitted toUniProt(i.e. TrEMBL, Swiss-Prot and PIR) using the interactive submission tool SPIN. Please note that they do not provide accession numbers, IN ADVANCE, for protein sequences that are the result of translation of nucleic acid sequences. These translations will forwarded automatically from the nucleotide sequence databases (EMBL/GebBank/DDBJ) and assigned UniProt accession numbers on incorporation into UniProt. Results from characterization experiments should also be submitted toUniProt: for novel sequences, these should be included with the sequence submission. Existing UniProt entries should also be updated. This can include information such as function, subcellular location, subunit, etc.

For papers reporting new ChIP-Seq data

New ChIP-Seq data must be deposited in GEO, with accession numbers at or before acceptance for publication.

Microarray data

All authors must comply with the'Minimal Information About a Microarray Experiment' (MIAME)guidelines published by the Microarray Gene Expression Data Society. NAR also requires submission of microarray data to the GEO or ArrayExpress databases, with accession numbers at or before acceptance for publication.

Quantitative PCR

Authors are encouraged to follow the'Minimal Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments' (MIQE)guidelines, if appropriate. The guidelines are published by the Real-Time PCR Data Markup Language Consortium and can be found athttp://www.rdml.org/miqe.php

Other datasets

In addition to the above-mentioned mandatory requirements for data submission to community-endorsed public databases, Nature journals strongly recommend deposition of other types of data sets into appropriate public repositories that are at an earlier stage of development. Examples of such repositories that facilitate sharing large data sets, some of which can offer the option of anonymous referee access to data before publication, include:

Manuscript Preparation

The manuscript preparation guidelines are adapted from those developed forInternational Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Careful attention to these guidelines will help ensure that your manuscript will move through the peer-review process smoothly and quickly.

Submissions to OA Text consist of the following components:

Reference Style Guide

We use Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (7th Edition, 2006) as our primary style guide and highly recommend that authors consult it.

The purpose of a reference list is to enable sources to be easily traced by another reader. Different types of publication require different amounts of information but there are certain common elements such as authorship, year of publication and title.

Any reference that is cited only in the tables or figures legends should be numbered according to the first identification of the table or figure in the main text in continuation with the sequence of citation numbering.

Place the reference immediately after the author name or if author name is not included in the sentence, at the end of the sentence after the punctuation mark.

Each reference must have a reference number. Reference should not be used in titles, headings or abstract. Use complete names for non-indexed journals

Avoid citing unpublished data or manuscripts, personal communications, websites, conference papers and non-peer reviewed publications. Avoid citing very old references.

The following guidelines, based on the CSE Manual, are intended to assist you in formatting references accurately and consistently.

Basic Reference Formatting

The reference list (appearing at the end of the article) should be numbered in the order that they appear in the text.

All references in text, tables, and legends must be identified by consecutive Arabic numerals in square brackets, listed immediately before the closing punctuation mark. E.g. [1] or [1,2] or [1-4] or [1-4,6] or [1,2,5-9] or [1,4-7,9, 11-20].

Published works, works accepted for publication, and citable datasets should appear in the reference list. Mentions of unpublished work should be cited parenthetically within the main text of the article as personal communications.

Citing References In-Text

Any in-text reference should include the authorship and the year of the work. Depending on the nature of the sentence/paragraph that is being written, references to sources may be cited in the text as described below:

Author's name cited in the text

When making reference to an author's work in your text, their name is followed by the year of publication of their work:

In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good practice to make reference to other relevant published work. This view has been supported in the work of Cormack (1994).

Where you are mentioning a particular part of the work, and making direct reference to this, a page reference should be included:

Cormack (1994, pp.32-33) states that "when writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works".

Author's name not cited directly in the text

If you make reference to a work or piece of research without mentioning the author in the text then both the author's name and publication year are placed at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence in brackets:

Making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing for a professional audience (Cormack, 1994).

More than one author cited in text

Where reference is made to more than one author in a sentence, and they are referred to directly, they are both cited:

Smith (1946) and Jones (1948) have both shown ...

Two or three authors for a work

When there are two or three authors for a work, they should be noted in the text

Directly using an and

White and Brown (2004) in their recent research paper found...

Or indirectly

Recent research (White and Brown, 2004) suggests that...

Other examples using two or three authors........

During the mid nineties research undertaken in Luton (Slater and Jones, 1996) showed that...

Further research (Green, Harris and Dunne, 1969) showed

When there are two or three authors for a work they should all be listed (in the order in which their names appear in the original publication), with the name listed last preceded by an and.

Four or more authors for a work

Where there are several authors (four or more), only the first author should be used, followed by et al. meaning and others:

Green, et al. (1995) found that the majority ...

or indirectly:

Recent research (Green, et al., 1995) has found that the majority of ...

More than one author not cited directly in the text

List these at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence, putting the author’s name, followed by the date of publication and separated by a semi-colon and within brackets.

Where several publications from a number of authors are referred to, then the references should be cited in chronological order (i.e. earliest first):

Further research in the late forties (Smith, 1946; Jones, 1948) led to major developments......

Recent research (Collins, 1998; Brown, 2001; Davies, 2008) shows that

Several works by one author in different years

If more than one publication from an author illustrates the same point and the works are published in different years, then the references should be cited in chronological order (i.e. earliest first):

as suggested by Patel (1992; 1994) who found that...

or indirectly:

research in the nineties (Patel, 1992; 1994) found that...

Several works by one author in the same year

If you are quoting several works published by the same author in the same year, they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter directly, with no space, after the year for each item:

Earlier research by Dunn (1993a) found that...but later research suggested again by Dunn (1993b) that ...

If several works published in the same year are referred to on a single occasion, or an author has made the same point in several publications, they can all be referred to by using lower case letters (as above):

Bloggs (1993a; 1993b) has stated on more than one occasion that ...

Chapter authors in edited works

References to the work of an author that appears as a chapter, or part of a larger work, that is edited by someone else, should be cited within your text using the name of the contributory author not the editor of the whole work.

In his work on health information, Smith (1975) states ...

In the reference list at the end of your document, you should include details of both the chapter author and the editor of the entire work

Smith, J., 1975. A source of information. In: W. Jones, ed. 2000. One hundred and one ways to find information about health. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ch.2

Corporate authors

If the work is by a recognised organisation and has no personal author then it is usually cited under the body that commissioned the work. This applies to publications by associations, companies, government departments etc. such as Department of the Environment or Royal College of Nursing.

It is acceptable to use standard abbreviations for these bodies, e.g. RCN, in your text, providing that the full name is given at the first citing with the abbreviation in brackets:

1st citation:

... following major pioneering research in 2006 undertaken by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) it has been shown that ...

2nd citation:

More recently the RCN (2007) has issued guidelines for...

Note that the full name is the preferred format in the reference list. These should provide the full name...

Royal College of Nursing, 2006.Children in the Community. London: RCN.

Royal College of Nursing, 2007.Administering intravenous therapy to children in the community setting: Guidance for nursing staff. London: RCN.

Some reports are written by specially convened groups or committees and can be cited by the name of the committee:

Committee on Nursing (1972)

Select Committee on Stem Cell Research (2002)

Note there are some exceptions to this such as:

BBC Philharmonic Orchestra

BBC News

where the abbreviations or initials form part of the official name.

No author

If the author cannot be identified use 'Anonymous' or 'Anon' and the title of the work and date of publication. The title should be written in italics.

Marketing strategy (Anon., 1999)

No date

The abbreviation n.d. is used to denote this:

Smith (n.d.) has written and demonstrated......

or indirectly:

Earlier research (Smith, n.d.) demonstrated that......

Every effort should be made to establish the year of publication if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission.

Page Numbers

Including the page numbers of a reference will help readers trace your sources. This is particularly important for quotations and for paraphrasing specific paragraphs in the texts:

Lawrence (1966, p.124) states "we should expect ..."

or indirectly:

This is to be expected (Lawrence, 1966, p.124)...

Please note page numbers: preceded with p. for a single page and pp. for a range of pages.

Quoting portions of published text

If you want to include text from a published work in your essay then the sentence(s) must be included within quotation marks, and may be introduced by such phrases as:

the author states that "............"

or

the author writes that "............"

On the topic of professional writing and referencing Cormack and Brown (1994, p.32) have stated...

"When writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works..."

In order for a reader to trace the quoted section it is good practice to give the number of the page where the quotation was found. The quotation should also be emphasized (where it is 50 words or more) by indenting it and enclosed in quotation marks. This clearly identifies the quotation as the work of someone else:

"Outside the UK, the BBC World Service has provided services by direct broadcasting and re-transmission contracts by sound radio since the inauguration of the BBC Empire Service in December 1932, and more recently by television and online. Though sharing some of the facilities of the domestic services, particularly for news and current affairs output, the World Service has a separate Managing Director, and its operating costs have historically been funded mainly by direct grants from the UK government. These grants were determined independently of the domestic licence fee. A recent spending review has announced plans for the funding for the world service to be drawn from the domestic licence fee". (Jones, 1967, p.27)

Secondary sources (second-hand references)

You may come across a summary of another author's work in the source you are reading, which you would like to make reference to in your own document; this is called secondary referencing.

A direct reference:

Research recently carried out in the Greater Manchester area by Brown (1966 cited in Bassett, 1986, p.142) found that ...

In this example, Brown is the work which you wish to refer to, but have not read directly for yourself. Bassett is the secondary source, where you found the summary of Brown's work.

Or indirectly:

(Brown, 1966 cited in Bassett, 1986, p.142)

It is important to realise that Bassett may have taken Brown's ideas forward, and altered their original meaning. If you need to cite a secondary reference it is recommended that, where possible, you read the original source for yourself rather than rely on someone else's interpretation of a work. For this reason it is best to avoid using secondary referencing.

The reference list at the end of your document should only contain works that you have read.

Tables and diagrams

When reproducing selected data, or copying an entire table or diagram, a reference must be made to the source. A reference within the text to a table taken from someone else's work, should include the author, date and page (Smith, 2005, p.33) to enable the reader to identify the data. If the source of the data is not the author's own, but obtained from another source, it becomes a secondary reference and needs to be cited as such:

(United Nations, 1975 cited in Smith, 2005, p.33)

If the table is reproduced in its entirety, place the citation below the table. Be particularly careful to note the original source of data, as well as the authorship of the document you are using. Full details should be included in the reference list.

Websites

When citing material found on a website, you should identify the authorship of the website. This may be a corporate author, an organisation or a company; a guide to this can be found by looking at the URL or web address. To find the date of publication, reference to this might be found at the bottom of a web page relating to copyright, or from a date headline.

Using Books, Journals and Newspapers

General Format

Author(s).Date.Title of the book.Edition. Place of publication: Publisher: Extent. (Series).Notes.

Books with one author

Use the title page, not the book cover, for the reference details. Only include the edition where it is not the first. A book with no edition statement is most commonly a first edition.

The required elements for a book reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book.Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place of publication (this must be a town or city, not a country): Publisher.

Reference

where 1st edition

Baron, D. P., 2008.Business and the organisation. Chester: Pearson.

where 3rd edition

Redman, P., 2006. Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. 3rd ed. London: Open University in assoc. with Sage.

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

Organisations have been found to differ (Baron, 2008) when there is ...

Leading social scientists such as Redman (2006) have noted ...

Please note where there is likely to be confusion with UK place names; for USA towns include the State in abbreviated form e.g. Birmingham, AL.

Books with multiple authors

For books with multiple authors, all the names should all be included in the order they appear in the document. Use an and to link the last two multiple authors.

The required elements for a reference are:

Authors, Initials., Year. Title of book.Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place: Publisher.

Reference

Adams, R. J.,Weiss, T.D. and Coatie, J.J., 2010. The World Health Organisation, its history and impact. London: Perseus.

Barker, R., Kirk, J. and Munday, R.J., 1988.Narrative analysis. 3rd ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

Leading organisations concerned with health (Adams, Weiss and Coatie, 2010) have proved that...

A new theory (Barker, Kirk and Munday, 1988) has challenged traditional thinking...

Books which are edited

For books which are edited give the editor(s) surname(s) and initials, followed by ed. or eds..

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., ed., Year. Title of book.Edition. Place: Publisher.

Keene, E. ed., 1988.Natural language. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.

Silverman, D.F. and Propp, K.K. eds., 1990.The active interview. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Allouche, Jose. ed., 2006. Corporate social resposibility, Volume 1: concepts, accountability and reporting. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chapters of edited books

For chapters of edited books the required elements for a reference are:

Chapter author(s) surname(s) and initials., Year of chapter. Title of chapter followed by In: Book editor(s) initials first followed by surnames with ed. or eds. after the last name. Year of book.Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Chapter number or first and last page numbers followed by full-stop.

References

Samson, C., 1970. Problems of information studies in history. In: S. Stone, ed. 1980. Humanities information research. Sheffield: CRUS. pp.44-68.

Smith, J., 1975. A source of information. In: W. Jones, ed. 2000. One hundred and one ways to find information about health. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ch.2.

An intext reference for the above example would read:

(Samson, 1970)

(Smith, 1975)

Multiple works by the same author

Where there are several works by one author and published in the same year they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the date.

Remember that this must also be consistent with the citations in the text

For multiple works the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initals., Year followed by letter. Title of book. Place: Publisher.

Soros, G., 1966a. The road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Soros, G., 1966b. Beyond the road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Works by the same author should be displayed in the order referenced in your assignment, earliest first (as above).

An intext reference for the above example would read:

(Soros, 1966a)

(Soros, 1966b)

This also applies if there are several authors with the same surname. As an alternative their initials can be included in the citation.

So for example, if you have sources written by George Soros and also by Manuel Soros, you would list them in alphabetic order:

(Soros, G. 1966a)

(Soros, G. 1966b)

(Soros, M. 1966)

Books- translations/imprints/reprints

For works which have been translated the reference should include details of the translator, the suggested elements for such references being:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Translated from (language) by (name of translator, initials first, then surname) Place of publication: Publisher.

Canetti, E., 2001. The voices of Marrakesh: a record of a visit. Translated from German by J.A.Underwood. San Francisco: Arion.

For major works of historic significance, the date of the original work may be included along with the date of the translation:

Kant, I., 1785. Fundamental principles of the metaphysic of morals.Translated by T.K. Abbott., 1988. New York: Prometheus Books.

For works in an another language, reference these in the same manner as an English language work but provide a translation. Students should check with their Faculty the validity of including original language works.

E-books and pdfs

E-books available through the University Library

For e-books accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year, Title of book. [e-book] Place of publication: Publisher. Followed by Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library websitehttp://libweb.anglia.ac.uk[Accessed date].

Fishman, R., 2005. The rise and fall of suburbia. [e-book] Chester: Castle Press. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library websitehttp://libweb.anglia.ac.uk[Accessed 12 May 2010].

Carlsen, J. and Charters, S., eds. 2007. Global wine tourism. [e-book] Wallingford: CABI Pub. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library websitehttp://libweb.anglia.ac.uk[Accessed 9 June 2008].

For an open access e-book freely available over the internet such as through Google books

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. [e-book] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Followed by Available at: e-book source and web address or URL for the e-book [Accessed date].

Cookson, J. and Church, S. eds., 2007.Leisure and the tourist. [e-book] Wallingford: ABS Publishers. Available at: Google Bookshttp://booksgoogle.com[Accessed 9 June 2008].

For an e-book from specific e-readers and other devices such as Kindle, or Nook

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year, Title of book. [e-book type] Place of publication (if available): Publisher. Followed by Available at: e-book source and web address [Accessed date].

Patterson, M. 2012. Lost places in dreams. [Kindle DX version] Transworld Media. Available at: Amazon.co.ukhttp:// www.amazon.co.uk[Accessed 9 June 2012].

If you include a quotation from an ebook without page numbers, use the section heading or chapter heading as a guide to locating your quotation, if available.

PDF documents

For a pdf version of, for example, a Government publication or similar which is freely available:

The required elements for a reference are:

Authorship, Year.Title of documents. [type of medium] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Followed by Available at: include web address or URL for the actual pdf, where available [Accessed date]. Bank of England, 2008.Inflation Report. [pdf] Bank of England. Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2009].

Department of Health, 2008. Health inequalities: progress and next steps. [pdf] London: Department of Health. Available at:http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_085307[Accessed 9 June 2008].

Print journal articles

For journal articles the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page number(s).

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an brief look. Political Science Quarterly, 42(6), p.564.

Cox, C., 2002. What health care assistants know about clean hands. Nursing today, Spring Issue, pp.647-85.

Perry, C., 2001. What health care assistants know about clean hands. Nursing Times, 97(22), pp.63-64.

General Format

Author(s).Date.Article title. Journal Title volume(issue): pages. doi.

Fewer than Five Authors

Steffen W, Crutzen PJ, McNeill, JR. 2007. The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature. Ambio 36(8): 614-621.

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36[614:TAAHNO]2.0.CO;2

More than Five Authors

Doxa A , Robert A , Crivelli A, Catsadorakis G, Naziridis T, et al. 2012. Shifts in breeding phenology as a response to population size and climatic change: A comparison between short- and long-distance migrant species. Auk 129(4): 753-762. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/auk.2012.11213

Journal articles accessed through a database

For journal articles from an electronic source accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if availalble. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website [Accessed date]

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an in depth look. Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42(6). Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library websitehttp://libweb.anglia.ac.uk[Accessed 12 June 2005].

An example of a Cochrane Review

Katchamart, W., Trudeau, J., Phumethum, V. and Bombardier, C., 2010.Methotrexate monotherapy versus methotrexate combination therapy with non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, [online] 4 (CD008495) Available at:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008495/abstract[Accessed 6 August 2013].

An example of an early view article from the BMJ

Currie, G.P., Small, I. and Douglas, G., 2013.Long acting Β2 agonists in adult asthma. BMJ [e-journal] Early view article: Accepted 20 May 2013, Published 6 August 2013, BMJ2013 ;347:f4662. Available at:http://www.bmj.com/content/347/bmj.f4662[Accessed 8 August 2013].

Journal abstract from a database

For a journal abstract from a database where you have been unable to access the full article, the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if availalble. Abstract only.

Available through: Source [Accessed date].

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: a brief look. Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42(6). Abstract only. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library websitehttp://libweb.anglia.ac.uk[Accessed 12 June 2005].

Every effort should be made to read the article in full if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission.

News paper articles

For newspaper articles the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article or column header.Full Title of Newspaper, Day and month before page numbers and column line.

Slapper, G., 2005. Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers.

The Times, 3 Sep. p.4b.

(In the page reference. p.4b - "4" indicates that the article is on the fourth page of the newspaper, columns of print on a page are labelled left to right alphabetically, so in this example "b" indicates that this is the second column of newsprint across the page from left to right.)

An example of corporate authorship where the newspaper article authorship is not stated.

Times, 2005. Corporate manslaughter: responses from the legal profession (Editorial comments), The Times, 8 Sep. p.4b.

Online newspaper articles

For newspaper articles found in online newspapers, the required elements for a reference are:

Author or corporate author, Year.Title of document or page.Name of newspaper, [type of medium] additional date information. Available at: [Accessed date].

Chittenden, M., Rogers, L. and Smith, D., 2003. Focus: 'Targetitis ails NHS. Times Online, [online]1 June. Available at:http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/scotland/article1138006.ece

[Accessed 17 March 2005].

Coney, J., 2009. Is this the start of a new home loan war HSBC vows to lend £1billion to homebuyers with 10% deposits. Daily Mail, [online] (Last updated 9.47 AM on 09th April 2009). Available at:http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1168461/Is-start-new-home-loan-war-HSBC-vows-lend-1billion-homebuyers-10-deposits.php

[Accessed on 20 April 2009].

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

(Chittenden, et al. 2003)

(Coney, 2009)

Using Other Source Types

Acts of Parliament

The required elements are:

Short title (with key words capitalized), which includes the year followed by the chapter number in brackets. Place of publication: Publisher.

Higher Education Act 2004. (c.8). London: HMSO.

For Acts prior to 1963, the regal year and parliamentary session are included:

Road Transport Lighting Act 1957. (5&6 Eliz. 2, c.51). London: HMSO.

If you need to refer to a specific section and paragraph, include the section, paragraph number and subsection. Finance Act 2007. s.45(9)(b).

Satutory instruments

The required elements for a reference are:

Short title (with key words capitalized). Year. the abbreviation 'SI' followed by the year of publication and the SI number. Place of publication: Publisher.

Public Offers of Securities Regulations 1995. 1995 SI 1995/1537. London: HMSO.

Official publications such as Command Papers

The required elements for a reference are:

Authorship, which may be part of the title, Year. Title, in italics if a separate element, Offically assigned number such as a Command number as it is on the document, within brackets. Place of publication: Publisher.

Royal Commission on civil liability and compensation for personal injury, 1978. (Pearson Report) (Cmnd. 7054). London: HMSO.

Select Committee on nationalised industries (1978-9), 1978. Consumers and the nationalised industries: prelegislative hearings (HC 334, 1978-9). London: HMSO.

House of Commons, Home Affairs Committee, 2012. The Work of the Border Force. (HC 523, Sixth Report of Session 2012-13) - Report, Together with Formal Minutes. London:TSO (The Stationery Office).

Law reports

It is recommended that you follow accepted legal citation, which is not part of the Harvard system. For this the required elements for a reference are:

Name of the parties involved in the law case, Year of reporting (in square brackets where there is no volume, or round brackets as indicated by the reference you are using) abbreviation for the law reporting series, part number/case number/page reference if available.

Jones v Lipman [1962] 1 WLR 832.

Saidi v France (1994) 17 EHRR 251, p.245.

R v White (John Henry) [2005] EWCA Crim 689, 2005 WL 104528.

In the last example you should only quote the two law reports if you have used them.

An intext reference for the above example would read:

In the recent case of R v White (John Henry) (2005), the defence noted ...

Annual report

The required elements for a reference are:

Corporate author, Year. Full title of annual report, Place of Publication: Publisher.

Marks & Spencer, 2004. The way forward, Annual report 2003-2004, London: Marks & Spencer.

For an e-version of an annual report. The required elements for a reference are:

Author or corporate author, Year. Title of document or page, [type of medium]

Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator)

[Accessed date]

Marks & Spencer, 2004. Annual report 2003-2004. [online]

Available at:

[Accessed 4 June 2005].

Archive material

If you have used material from archives or special collections, the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of document. [type of medium] Collection, Document number. Geographical Town/Place: Name of Library/Archive/Repository.

Brown, P.S., 1915. An address to the Farmer. [manuscript] Holdbury Collection. 600. London: Holdbury Library.

An intext reference for the above example would read:

(Brown, 1915)

British Standards and International Standards

The required elements for a reference are:

Corporate author, Year of Publication. Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard, Place of publication: Publisher.

British Standards Institution, 1990. BS 5555:1990 Recommendations for wiring identification. Milton Keynes: BSI.

International Standards Office, 1998. ISO 690 - 2 Information and documentation: Bibliographical references: Electronic documents. Geneva: ISO.

The required elements for an e-version are:

Corporate author, Year. Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard. Place of publication (if available): Publisher [online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed date].

British Standards Institution, 2011. BS EN 594:2011 Timber structures. Test methods. Racking strength and stiffness of timber frame wall panels. British Standards Online [online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 31 August 2011].

Patents

The required elements for a reference are:

Inventor name, Initials., Assignee., Year. Title. Place. Patent number (status, if an application).

Example:

Graham, C.P., Fonti, L. and Martinez, A.M., American Sugar Co. 1972. Tableting sugar and compositions containing it. U.S. Pat. 3,642,535.

Leonard, Y., Super Sports Limited. 2008. Tin can manufacture and method of sealing. Canada. Pat. 12,789,675.

Conference reports and papers

The required elements for a conference report are:

Authorship, Year. Full title of conference report. Location, Date. Place of publication: Publisher.

UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 2005. 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, Republic of Korea, 24-27 May 2005. New York: United Nations.

The required elements for a conference paper are:

Author, Initials., Year. Full title of conference paper. In: followed by editor or name of organisation, Full title of conference. Location, Date. Place of publication: Publisher.

Brown, J., 2005. Evaluating surveys of transparent governance. In: UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, Republic of Korea, 24-27 May 2005. New York: United Nations.

Reports by organisations

The required elements for a reference are:

Authorship/Organisation, Year. Full title of report. Place: Publisher:

Department of Health, 2001. National service framework for older people. London: Department of Health.

Coulter, A. and Collins, A., 2011. Making shared decision-making a reality: no decision about me, without me. London: The King's Fund./p>

The required elements for an e-version are:

Authorship/Organisation, Year. Full title of report. [type of medium] Place: Publisher. Available at: include web address/URL [Accessed on date].

Department of Health, 2001. National service framework for older people. [pdf] London: Department of Health. Available at:http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4071283.pdf[Accessed 12 September 2011].

Coulter, A. and Collins, A., 2011. Making shared decision-making a reality: no decision about me, without me. [pdf] London: The King's Fund. Available at:http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/publications/nhs_decisionmaking.php[Accessed 12 September 2011].

Dissertations and Theses

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of dissertation. Level. Official name of University.

Richmond, J., 2005. Customer expectations in the world of electronic banking: a case study of the Bank of Britain. Ph. D. Anglia Ruskin University.

The required elements for an e-version are:

Author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of dissertation. Level. Official name of University. Available at [Accessed on date].

Fisher, C. W., 2008. The legacy of leadership - a study of leadership influence within a single organisation. DEd. University of Sheffield. Available at: [Accessed 30.07.2012].

European union documents

Following EU conventions, examples of various EU documents are given below:

The required elements for a reference are:

The name of the Institution where the document originates (e.g. Commission) Form (eg Directive or Decision) Year/Legislation number/ Initials of Institution followed by the date it was passed if known, followed by the title, all in italics.

Council Directive 2001/29 /EC of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society.

Commission Decision 93/42/EEC of 21 December 1992 concerning additional guarantees relating to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis for bovines destined for Denmark.

EU Regulation 1408/71

REGULATION (EEC) No 1408/71 OF THE COUNCIL of 14 June 1971 on the application of social security schemes to employed persons and their families moving within the Community.

Council Regulation (EEC) 1612/68[5] of 15 October 1968 on freedom of movement for workers within the Community.

Course material and lecture notes

It is important to check with the lecturer who has given the lecture that they are in agreement with course material being included in any Reference List. If they are in agreement, and if it is not a publicly available document, it is important to provide a copy in the Appendix of your work. The citation to the course material in your Reference List should then also refer to the Appendix.

It would also be advisable to follow up any sources mentioned in your lecture and read these for yourself.

Course material / lecture notes - print version

The required elements for a reference are:

Lecturer/Author, Initials., Year. Title of item, Module Code Module title. HE Institution, unpublished.

Williams, B., 2008. Guide to project management, BD45001S Management. Anglia Ruskin University, unpublished.

An intext reference for the above example would read:

(Williams, 2008)

Course material - electronic

The required elements for a reference are:

Lecturer/Author, Initials., Year. Title of item, Module Code Module Title [online via internal VLE], HE Institution. Available at: web address if available over the internet, otherwise indicate if available through WebCT, SharePoint or other virtual learning environment address. [Accessed date].

Williams, B., 2008. Guide to project management, BD45001S Management. [online via internal VLE] Anglia Ruskin University Available at: [Accessed Date 13 June 2008].

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

(Williams, 2008) ...

Quotations from written plays

When reviewing a number of different plays it is essential to cite the title of the plays. If reviewing one play (for example Twelfth Night) it is not necessary to repeat the title in your citations.

Published plays may contain line numbers, particularly in classic texts such as Shakespeare. If they exist it is good practice to include the line number, but Act and Scene numbers must always be included. /p>

Classic plays are available in edited editions and the editor's name should be included with your reference.

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year (of the edition). Title of play. Editors, Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place of publication: (this must be a town or city, not a country) Publisher.

Shakespeare, W. 1995. Twelfth Night. (World's Classics series) Warren, R. and Wells, T. eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

Much speculation has occurred when Malvolio imagines he might marry Olivia, "there is example for't; the Lady of the Strachy married the yeoman of the wardrobe" (Shakespeare, Twelfth Night II,v,36-7).

Interviews

Where you have conducted an interview - using a primary source. You are recommended to check with your Faculty Office for detailed guidance on what you may include.

Where you are conducting the interview, it is important to check with the person being interviewed that they will be in agreement with a transcript of the interview being made available. Since this will not be a publicly available document, it may be included as a transcript within an Appendix in your piece of work.

The citation for this interview should refer to the Appendix.

In an interview (Appendix A) the findings of the report were reviewed and White agreed with ...

In the Appendix you should include details such as:

Interviewee's name. Year of interview. Title of interview. Interviewed by ...name. [type of medium/format] Location and exact date of interview . Together with the transcript.

Where you are using an interview from a source such as a television programme

The suggested elements for a reference are:

Interviewee name, Initials., Year of Interview. Title of Interview. (or Interview on ..name of programme) Interviewed by ...name (first name and surname). [type of medium/format] Name of Channel, Date of transmission, time of transmission.

Ahern, B., 1999. Interview on Morning Ireland. Interviewed by... John Boyd [radio] RTE Radio 1, 15 February 1999, 08:30.

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

(Ahern, 1999)

Press release

These may be print or electronic.

For a print press release:

Corporate author of press release, Year. Title. Press release, date.

RCN, 2009. RCN praises health care staff as infections continue to fall. Press release, 18 June 2009.

For an electronic press release:

Corporate author of press release, Year. Title. [press release] date. Available at: web address [Accessed date].

RCN, 2009. RCN praises health care staff as infections continue to fall. [press release] 18 June 2009. Available at:http://www.rcn.org.uk/newsevents/news/article/uk/rcn_praises_health_care_staff_as_infections_continue_to_fall[Accessed 23 June 2009].

Department of Health, 2011. Act F.A.S.T. campaign relaunched to save more lives. [press release] 28 February 2011. Available at:http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/MediaCentre/Pressreleases/DH_124696[Accessed 15 April 2012].

Religious texts

When you are quoting from a sacred text e.g. the Bible, the Torah or the Quran, the suggested elements for a citation are:

Name of religious text, Book. Sura or Chapter: Verse

An in-text reference for the Bible could look like this...

"In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth" (The Bible, Genesis. 1:1)

Convention dictates that you do not use page numbers with religious texts

The required elements for a full reference are:

Full title, Year. Place of publication: Publisher.

The Bible: contemporary English version, 2000. London: Harper Collins.

For other sacred texts, it is important that you clearly identify the location of the text that you cite using the appropriate numbering system.

Reference from dictionary

When you are quoting a definition from a dictionary, use the publisher as the author.

The required elements for a citation are:

(Publisher, Year)

(Chambers, 2010)

For the reference

The suggested elements for a reference are:

Dictionary publisher, Year. Full title of dictionary. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Chambers, 2010. Chambers paperback dictionary thesaurus. London: Champers Harpers Publishers Ltd.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2012. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. [online] London: Encyclopedia Britannica (UK). Avaialble through:encyclopaediabritannica.co.uk/intro[Accessed 12 June 2011].

Data Sources

Where data it extracted from a data source such as Isurv or FAME, both the source with the year of currency for that data. should be acknowledge in an intext reference.

Complete details should be included in the reference list.

RICS ISurv, 2013. More new homes. [Building surveying > Pathology > Modern methods of construction > Meeting challenges with MMC] ISurv [online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library [Accessed 21 May 2013].

Where you have gathered and manipulated data from a data source like FAME or OECD and placed this in a table of your own making, we recommend that you give the source and year of currency, for the data, as an the intext reference and include a note to an appendix. In the appendix you can reproduce the source tables you have used to create your table and include adequate details of how you generated the table you have used in your work.

Computer Program

For a computer program downloaded from the internet, the required elements of a references are:

Authorship/Organisation, Year. Title of program. (Version). [computer program] Distributor/Publisher. (if available) Available at: [Accessed date]

Adobe Systems Incorporated, 2013. Adobe Air (3.8 beta). [computer program] Adobe Labs. Available at:http://labs.adobe.com/technologies/flashruntimes/air/[Accessed 30 August 2013].

Using Electronic Sources

Websites

For websites found on the worldwide web the required elements for a reference are:

Authorship or Source, Year.Title of web document or web page. [type of medium] (date of update if available) Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

If the URL appears to be exceedingly long, provide routing details which enable the reader to access the particular page via the site's homepage. You may be taken to a particular page as a result of a search you performed, or be directed from a link to another place on a website. The resultant URLs may include specific data about your method of accessing that page that is not available to your reader. If this is the case use the homepage (from which the reference can be found).

NHS Evidence, 2003.National Library of Guidelines. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 October 2009].

Publications available from websites

For publications found on the internet the required elements for a reference are:

Author or corporate author, Year.Title of document. [type of medium] Place: Producer/Publisher. Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Boots Group Plc., 2003. Corporate social responsibility. [online] Boots Group Plc. Available at: [Accessed 23 July 2005].

Defoe, D., 1999. The fortunes and the misfortunes of the famous Moll Flanders. [online] Champaign, Illinois: Project Gutenberg. Available at: [Accessed 18 November 2005].

Independent Inquiry into Access to Healthcare for People with Learning Disabilities, n.d. Healthcare for all. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 April 2009].

Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines, 2001.Hypertension in the elderly. (SIGN publication 20) [online] Edinburgh: SIGN (Published 2001) Available at: [Accessed 17 March 2005].

E-mail correspondence/discussion lists

Particular care needs to be taken if you are quoting from these as they may include personal email addresses and be from a restricted source.

Permission should be sought before these sources are quoted.

For email correspondence or discussion lists the suggested elements for a reference are:

Name of sender, email address, Year.Message or subject title from posting line. [type of medium] Recipient's name and (email address). Date sent: Including time. Available at: URL (e.g. details of where message is archived) [Accessed date].

Jones, P., jones@jones.com, 2005.Mobile phone developments. [email] Message to R G. Schmit (r.g.schmit@syy.ac.uk).Sent Monday 7 June 2005: 08:13. Available at: [Accessed 7 July 2005].

Copies of such correspondence should be kept, as these may need to be submitted as an appendix in an academic submission

Blogs

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of individual blog entry.Blog title, [medium] Blog posting date. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Whitton, F., 2009. Conservationists are not making themselves heard. Guardian.co.uk Science blog, [blog] 18 June. Available at: [Accessed 23 June 2009].

Blog comments

The required elements for a reference are:

Comment Author, Year. Title of individual blog entry.Blog title, [medium] Comment posting date. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

DGeezer, 2009. Conservationists are not making themselves heard. Guardian.co.uk Science blog, [blog] 18 June, Available at: [Accessed 23 June 2009].

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

(Whitton, 2009)

(DGeezer, 2009)

Mailing list

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initial., Year. Subject line, Title of Mailing List. [online] date of message. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Murrey, T., 2009.Sharing good practice, Forum for International Students. [online] 23 June 2009. Available at: [Accessed 23 June 2009].

Social Media

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of page [Facebook].Day/month post written. Available from: [ Accessed date].

Andrews, A., 2012. Customer Focus Group [Facebook]. 11 November . Available at: [Accessed 11 November 2010].

Author, Initials., Year. Full text of tweet [Twitter].Day/month tweet written. Available at: [Date accessed].

Big Red Corporation. 2013. New products for cars [Twitter]. 17 May Available at: [Accessed 13 November 2010].

Unpublished Works

Unpublished works

You may occasionally have access to a document before it is published and may therefore not be able to provide full details:

Pattison, J., (in press) A new book that I have written. London: Vanity Press.

Woolley, E. and Muncey, T., (in press) Demons or diamonds: a study to ascertain the range of attitudes present in health professionals to children with conduct disorder. Journal of Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing.(Accepted for publication December 2002).

Informal or in-house publications

For informal publications, such as class handouts and leaflets, provide what details you can:

Anglia Ruskin University, 2007.Using the Cochrane Library. [leaflet] August 2007 ed. Cambridge: Anglia Ruskin University.

Personal communication

Where you refer to a more informal personal communication, e.g. letter, email, phone call or conversation, provide as much detail as possible and note the nature of the communication.

Permission should be sought before these sources are quoted, and a copy retained for reference.

Hindle, E., 2000. Introducing Cow & Gate Omneo Comfort: an infant milk for digestive comfort. [letter] (Personal communication, 2 June 2000).

O'Sullivan, S., 2003.Discussion on citation and referencing. [letter] (Personal communication, 5 June 2003).

Images

DVD, video or film

The required elements for a reference are:

Full title of DVD or video. Year of release. [type of medium] Director. (if relevant) Country of origin: Film studio or maker. (Other relevant details).

Great films from the 80s: a selection of clips from Warner Brothers top films from the 1980s. 2005 [DVD] New York: Warner Brothers.

Health for all children 3: the video. 2004. [video] London: Child Growth Foundation. (Narrated by D.B.M. Hall).

For a film the suggested elements should include:

Title. Year of release. [Medium] Director. Country of origin: Film studio.

Macbeth, 1948. [Film] Directed by Orson Welles. USA: Republic Pictures

Broadcasts

For a broadcast the suggested elements should include:

Series title and episode name and number if relevant, Year of broadcast. [type of medium] Broadcasting organisation and Channel, date and time of transmission.

Little Britain, 2006. [TV programme] BBC, BBC2, 30 January 2006 20.00.

For a broadcast obtained through Box of Broadcasts

Little Britain, 2006. [TV programme recording] BBC, BBC2, 30 January 2006 20:00. Available through: Box of Broadcasts database [Accessed 12 August 2011].

Pictures, Images and photographs

The suggested elements for a reference are:

Artist/Photographer's name (if known), Year of production. Title of image. [type of medium] Collection Details as available (Collection, Document number, Geographical Town/Place: Name of Library/Archive/Repository).

Beaton, C., 1956. Marilyn Monroe. [photograph] (Marilyn Monroe�s own private collection).

Beaton, C., 1944. China 1944: A mother resting her head on her sick child's pillow in the Canadian Mission Hospital in Chengtu. [photograph] (London, Imperial War Museum Collection).

For an electronic reference the suggested elements are:

Artist/Photographer's name, Year of production. Title of image. [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) and additional details of access, such as the routing from the homepage of the source. [Accessed date].

Dean, R., 2008. Tales from Topographic Oceans. [electronic print] Available at: [Accessed 18 June 2008].

Image taken from Bridgemean Education database

Peeters, C., ca. 164?. Still life of fish and lemons. (Bridgeman Education database) [image online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website [Accessed 12 June 2013]

Electronic images

For images found on the internet the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Year (image created). Title of work. [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Where the author is not known, begin the reference with the title of the work.

Where none of the usual details are known, (such as author, date, or image title) try to find the filename of the image (for example by right clicking and looking at the properties of the file). If none of the above is available begin the reference with the subject and title of the work.

[Child placing gauze over knee wound] n.d. [image online] Available at:< http://www.dadpal.com/2009/12/wounds-care-help-and-wound-vac-therapy.php>[Accessed 01 June 2010].

[Nimbus 1 returned sharp cloud cover photos, plus night time infra red pictures] n.d. [image online] Available at: [Accessed 13 November 2008].

Pepsi, 2009. Pepsi can designs. [image online] Available at: [Accessed 19 June 2009].

Van Vechten, C. 1934. Man Ray. [photograph] Available at: [Accessed 04 October 2009].

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

(Child placing gauze, n.d.)

(Nimbus 1, n.d.)

(Pepsi, 2009)

(Van Vechten, 1934)

Maps-Print Maps, Digimap and Google Earth

The required elements for a reference are:

Map maker, Year of issue. Title of map. Map series, Sheet number, scale. Place of publication: Publisher.

Ordnance Survey, 2006. Chester and North Wales. Landranger series, Sheet 106, 1:50000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey. The required elements for Digimap are:

Map publisher (origin), Year of publication. Created map title, Scale. Source [online] Available through Library website [Accessed date].

Ordinance Survey, 2011. Anglia Ruskin University: Chelmsford Campus, 1:1.500. EDINA Digimap [online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library [Accessed 31 August 2011].

The suggested elements for Google Earth are:

Google Earth version (if applicable), Year data released. Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. Data set (if applicable) [online] Available through: URL [Accessed date].

Google Earth 6.0, 2008. Hylands House and Estates 51°42'39.17"N, 0°26'11.30"W, elevation 60M. 3D Buildings data layer. Available through: [Accessed 31 August 2011].

Podcast and archived TV programme

The required elements for a reference are:

Broadcaster/Author, Year. Programme title, Series Title. (if relevant) [type of medium] date of transmission. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

National Gallery, 2008. Episode Seventeen (March 2008), The National Gallery Monthly Podcast. [podcast] March 2008. Available at:< http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/podcasts>[Accessed 23 June 2009].

YouTube video

The required elements for a reference are:

Screen name of contributor, Year. Video Title, Series Title. (if relevant) [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Mrgeorged, 2009. Top Gear The Stig revealed Full. [video online] Available at: [Accessed 23 June 2009].

Defra, 2007. Sustainable development: the bigger picture. [video online] Available at: [Accessed 23 June 2012].

An in text reference for the above example would read:

The principle research states "The need for substainable development..." (Defra 2007)