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Pathology and treatments of obesity

Da-Yong Lu

Shanghai University, Shanghai, PR China

E-mail : aa

Jin-Yu Che

Shanghai University, Shanghai, PR China

Ting-Ren Lu

Shanghai University, Shanghai, PR China

Yi Lu

Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, PR China

Yong-Kang Huang

The Second Hospital of Neijiang District, Sichuan Province, PR China

Ting-Lan Lu

The Second Hospital of Neijiang District, Sichuan Province, PR China

Yu-Zhen Chen

The Second Hospital of Neijiang District, Sichuan Province, PR China

Hong-Ying Wu

Shanghai University, Shanghai, PR China

Da-Feng Lu

The Second Hospital of Neijiang District, Sichuan Province, PR China

DOI: 10.15761/TiM.1000157

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Abstract

Obesity is prevalence globally. About 35-36% adults in the US are suffered with obesity. Many types of therapeutic/management measures have been developed for this symptom. Body-weight loss often fails after discontinuation of life-style and therapeutic efforts. This article tries to shed new light on obese pathology and treatment study.

Key words

obesity, diabetes, endocrinology

Background

Obesity is an undesired phenotype/symptom that causes a lot of troubles obese people [1-3]. However, it is difficult to be remedied by existing management measures and resources via shortage of pathological and therapeutic knowledge globally. Many types of therapeutic/management measures have been developed for this symptom—some of these measures are even very expensive (surgery) or harmful for the sufferers (dietary control or increase of nutrition excretion) [1-3]. Usually, body-weight loss effort fails after discontinuation of therapies.

Global situation

Approximately 1/4 to 1/3 of global adult population is obesity (body mass index > 30) [4]. The co-morbidity of obese persons with many other diseases, such as depression, diabetes, cardiovascular risks and so on is very troublesome in the clinic [2-12]. In addition, obese youngsters often meet with some kinds of other embarrassment such as episode of romance failures in blind-date, difficult to find decent jobs and lower possibility of position promotion [2-4]. From these obese sufferers, losing weight is their first choice and addictive with. This editorial will outline pathological and therapeutic information we know about.

Generally speaking, purposed weight loss is a great pain and agonizing. Only small proportion of obese people can success in the clinic. Many people, especially personal practice regain their weight after therapeutic discontinuation. As a result, most obese people struggle with this problem in a long-term. To solve with this therapeutic weak point, pathological or therapeutic study and knowledge accumulation is the key.

Etio-pathologic knowledge

Human obesity is caused by a lot of different environmental or morbidity factors—including [2-3];

Overfeed

Energy disturbance

Pathologic factorials

Sedentary (less physical exercises)

Gastro-intestinal abnormal

Psychiatric burden

Behavior (alcoholic and laziness)

Chemical or drug-induced

Tumor-induced

Physiological change (neural-appetite axis)

Inheritance (genetic/epigenetic)

Hormonal or blood glucose level escalations

Major counteractive measures[13-17]

Diet-control

Consumption of more fresh fruits, vegetable and seafood

Life-style adjustments (exercises, Yoga, athletics, ball-games and meditation)

Surgery (gastric bariatric surgery)

Chemical drugs

Biotherapy

Psychiatric intervention

Therapeutic combinations

Future directions

Obese therapeutics and managements should target on human inflammatory homeostasis, etio-pathological pathways and energy disturbance/imbalance—including life-style adjustments, energy homeostasis and lipo-dystrophy. Without these targeted therapeutics, clinical obese therapy will not be able to completely reliance, cheap and less toxicity to diseased people. This is the ultimate goal of pharmaceutical company and clinical doctors.

Genomic study of obesity might bring us many new insights into this chronic phenotype/symptom [1-3,18-20]. Along with the advance of other diseases, the patho-therapeutic knowledge of obesity might be improved by this genomic approach in the future.

Therapeutic combinations are also very useful for obese patients. These kinds of therapeutic paradigms are very useful for many other diseases [21-24]. Similar work in this regard (large-scale in vitro and in vivo experimental study) is inevitable in the future.

Natural chemotherapeutic agents or drugs might be more effective against obese onset, metabolic syndrome and progresses [25-27]. Today, many chemical or herbal drugs are the main sources of obese control and treatments. Certainly, life-style adjustments are well assistance to these natural drugs and many other therapeutic targets, such as leptin, insulin and many others.

Conclusion

Many therapeutics can help us to manage overweight and even obesity in the clinic. However, there is a long way to go for completely managing all obese people. We need to promote these researches in the near future. Look forward to new generation of medical breakthroughs for obese control and managements.

Acknowledgment

This work was funded by Shanghai Science and Technology Foundation of High Education 97A49.

Conflict of interests

None.

References

  1. World Health Organization. WHO (2018) Obesity and overweight. Access February 18, 2018. http//www.who.int/topics/obesity/en/
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  5. Lu DY, Che JY, Yarla NS, Zhu H, Lu TR, et al. (2018) Type 2 diabetes study, introduction and perspective. The Open Diabetes Journal 8: 13-21.
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  17. Correa-Giannella ML, Machado UF (2013) SLC2A4 gene: a promising target for pharmacogenomics of insulin resistance. Pharmacogenomics 14: 847-850.
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  21. Lu DY, Wu HY, Yarla NS, Xu B, Ding J, et al. (2018) HAART in HIV/AIDS Treatments: Future Trends.Infect Disord Drug Targets18: 15-22. [Crossref]
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  24. Lu DY, Lu TR, Yarla NS, Wu HY, Xu B, et al. (2017) Drug combination in clinical cancer treatment. Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials 12: 202-211
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  26. Putta S, Yarla NS, Peluso I, Tiwari DK, Reddy GV, et al. (2017) Anthocyanins: Possible role as multitarget therapeutic agents for prevention and therapy of chronic diseases. Current Pharmaceutical Design 23: 6321-6346.
  27. Alam F, Islam MA, Kamal MA, Gam SH (2016) Updates on managing type 2 diabetes mellitus with natural products. Towards antidiabetic drug developments. Current Medicinal Chemistry 23: 1-37.

Editorial Information

Editor-in-Chief

Ying-Fu Chen
Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan

Article Type

Editorial

Publication history

Received date: August 27, 2018
Accepted date: September 10, 2018
Published date: September 12, 2018

Copyright

©2018 Lu D. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Citation

Lu D, Che J, Lu T, Lu Y, Huang Y, et al. (2018) Pathology and treatments of obesity. Trends Med 18: doi: 10.15761/TiM.1000157

Corresponding author

Dr. Da-Yong Lu

Shanghai University, Shanghai, PR China

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