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Effect of leaf extracts of Cymbopogon Citratus, Chromolaena Odorata and Newbouldia Laevis on the Dioscorea Alata rot

Okigbo RN

Department of Botany, Faculty of Bioscience, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B., 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

E-mail : aa

Ezebo RO

Department of Botany, Faculty of Bioscience, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B., 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

DOI:10.15761/IFNM.1000205

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Abstract

Fungitoxic effect of ethanol and cold-water extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Chromolaena odorata, and Newbouldia laevis were determined in vitro on causative agents of water yam rot. The microbial pathogens obtained were Botryodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani, Penicillium spp and Rhizopus stolonifer. Ethanol and cold-water extracts of the plants were prepared by adding separately 10 g, 20 g, 30 g, 40 g and 50 g of the leaf powder of Cymbopogon citratus, Chromolaena odorata and Newbouldia laevis into 100 ml of ethanol and cold water respectively. All extracts of the plant materials at varying concentrations showed antifungal activity against the fungal tested. The antimycotic effect of the plant extracts varied with the solvent of extraction, extraction concentration and the test organisms. Ethanol extracts of Cymbopogon citratus had between slightly (11.10-18.00%) and moderately effective (29.65-46.00%) inhibition on the mycelia growth of all the fungi tested. Also, cold water extracts of Cymbopogon citratus depicted slightly (4.00-19.92%) and moderately effective (37.7-39.00%) inhibition on all the fungi tested. Ethanol extracts of Chromolaena odorata had between slightly (11.18-15.03%) and moderately effective (29.65-41.00%) on all the fungal pathogens. Also, cold water extracts of Chromolaena odorata showed between slightly to moderately effective inhibition ranging from (8.00-19.05%) to (21.00-39.00%) respectively. Ethanol extracts of Newbouldia laevis showed between slightly (0.35-19.10%) and moderately effective (22.90-49.11%) inhibition on all the fungi tested. Cold water extracts of Newbouldia laevis showed between slightly to moderately effective inhibition ranging from (3.40-19.00%) to (22.00-44.01%) respectively. The most fungitoxic of all the extracts was observed with the 50% ethanol extract of Newbouldia laevis which showed significant (P<0.05) inhibition on all the test fungal pathogens. Ethanol plant extracts showed higher antifungal activity against the

test pathogens than the cold-water plant extracts. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed and the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was also used to test the difference among treatments. Phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids in the extracts but at different concentrations. This study indicated that Cymbopogon citratus, Chromolaena odorata and Newbouldia laevis were able to suppress rot-causing fungi of water yam deterioration. The fungitoxic potentials of these extracts on water yam rots can provide an alternative to synthetic fungicides since it is less expensive,environmental friendly and easy to prepare.

Key words

effect, leaf extracts, Cymbopogon citratus, Chromolaena odorata, Newbouldia laevis, Dioscorea alata rot

Introduction

Yam (Dioscorea spp.) a monocotyledonous plant, belonging to the family Dioscoreaceae, is a herbaceous annual climbing plant with edible underground tubers [1]. It is the most important food crops in West Africa [2,3] and form an important food source in other tropical countries including East Africa, the Carribbean, South America, India and South-East Asia [2,3]. Okigbo [3] estimated that the world production of yams is around 20 million tonnes per year. The greater part of the world yam production (over 90%) is derived from West Africa [2,3] and Nigeria alone produces three-quarters of the world total output of yam [3,4].

Of the ten-cultivated species of yam, the six most important in Nigeria are: Dioscorea rotundata Poir (white yam), Dioscorea alata L. (water yam), Dioscorea cayenensis Lam. (yellow yam), Dioscorea dumetorum (Kunth) Pax. (cluster or bitter yam), Dioscorea bulbifera L. (aerial yam) and Dioscorea esculenta (Loir) Bark (Chinese yam) [5,6].

Water yam (Dioscorea alata) is the most economically important yam species which serve as a staple food for millions of people in tropical and subtropical countries [2,7]. Dioscorea alata is a crop with potential for increased consumer demand due to its low sugar content necessary for diabetic patients [8].

According to Scott et al., water yam (Dioscorea alata L.) is the most widely distributed species of yam, though the total quantity produced is less than that of white yam. Water yam (D. alata L.) is grown widely in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. They are plants yielding tubers and contain starch between 70% and 80% of dry matter [9,10].

The tuber is the only economically important part of the crop and according to Sangoyomi [11], it is consumed roasted, fried, boiled, pounded or as flour which can be reconstituted with hot water. Yam tubers are of a very high value, as in food, where it is a major source of carbohydrate, minerals of calcium, phosphorus, iron and vitamins B and C [2,12]. According to Olayide and Heady [13], the demand for yam in Nigeria has always exceeded its supply.

In spite of the importance of yams as major staple food and its socio-cultural value in the lives of the people of the West and Central Africa sub-region, research and documentation on this important staple food crop is very limited [11].

During prolonged storage, considerable losses occur [11]. Losses up to 10-20% may be observed in the first three months and 30-60% after six months in the yam barns [2,14,15]. Causes of storage losses are rotting, pests and sprouting. However, rotting causes the greatest amount of losses and it is due mostly to the effects of fungi, bacteria and nematodes. Fungi are the most important and have been reported to be responsible for 80% of all storage rots of yam tubers in West Indies and 57-77% in Nigeria [16].

The principal microorganisms associated with yam include: Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht, Penicillium oxalicum Currie and Thom., Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh and Aspergillus tamari Kita [5,17-19]. Microorganisms that caused rot did so at a high relative humidity and temperatures of 25-39℃ [5] and some were more aggressive at a higher temperature of 35℃.Yam rots usually start in the soil and progress in storage, which occur when infected tubers do not yet have any sign of external symptoms [12].

The widespread use of medicinal plants (both indigenous and alien) can be traced to the occurrence of natural products with medicinal properties in plants and their ability to synthesize a variety of chemical compounds [20-23]. The use of chemicals has helped in the control of rots but due to the identifiable problems which include: biodegradation, pollution, chemical residues, phytotoxicity, high cost, development of resistance in target organism, a times non availability and then being hazardous to man and his environment renders them either slow to adapt or farmers have totally failed to adopt them for one cultural reason or the other [24,25]. Recently, considerable efforts are directed at exploring the potentials of plant extracts as alternative to synthetic chemicals. These plant extracts are readily available, affordable, non-phytotoxic and are biodegradable thus being friendly to man and his environment [26-28].

Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC. Ex Nees) Stapf of family, Poaceae, is a perennial grass plant widely distributed worldwide and most especially in tropical and subtropical countries [29]. Several reports have linked its origin to Asia (Indochina, Indonesia and Malaysia), Africa and the America. The plant could grow up to 6 inch high and its bulb-like stems consist of terete and glabrous linearly venated sheathed leaves with narrow base and acute apex. The leaf height is about 10℃m in length and 2 cm in width. When squeezed, the leaves usually produce yellow or amber coloured, aromatic essential oil [30].

Lemongrass also enjoyed wide application in folk medicine [31]. Traditionally, tea made from lemongrass leave is popular among countries of South America, Asia and West Africa having been widely utilized as antiseptic, antifever, antidyspeptic, carminative and anti-inflammatory effects. Others are febrifuge, analgesic, spasmolytic, antipyretic, dieuretic, tranquilizer and stomachic agent [30,32-35].

Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King and Robinson formerly known as Eupatorium odoratum (siam weed) of family, Asteraceae, is a herbaceous perennial that forms dense tangled bushes about 1.5-2.0 m in height and has a characteristic aromatic smell [36]. It is considered to be a significant economic and ecological burden to many tropical and subtropical regions of the world where it impacts negatively on agriculture, biodiversity and livelihoods [37,38].

Following its introduction into West Africa in the 1930’s [39] and South Africa in the 1940’s [40], the species has spread into many countries on the continent [41].

The medicinal use of Chromolaena odorata has also not gone unnoticed. The astringent properties of the leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata on the blood vessel [42] has made it a popular plant in the prevention of blood loss from wounds, also its antimicrobial properties have made it a popular choice in disinfecting and treating open wounds [43]. The 8 anthelmintic properties of the aqueous extracts of C. odorata have also been widely known among the peasant population of Asia and Africa. Its popularity as an effective therapy against diarrhea, malaria fever, tooth ache, diabetes, skin diseases, dysentery and colitis has been severally documented [43,44].

Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv.) of family, Bignoniaceae, commonly called African border tree or boundary tree is known locally as “Aduruku” in Hausa, “Ogirisi” in Igbo and “Akoko” in Yoruba Languages of Northern, Eastern and Western Nigeria, respectively.

The plant is valued for many medicinal properties in various African tropical catalogues. Extracts from different parts of the plant (leaves, stem, bark and roots) have been shown to possess antimicrobial, anti-malaria, antioxidant, nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties [45,46]. The aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts displayed uterine contractile effects [47].

Plant extracts have been used to control yam diseases [12]. It is important to search for a method of controlling yam deterioration that will be affordable, durable and environment friendly.

This study investigated the antifungal properties of leaf extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Chromolaena odorata and Newbouldia laevis against some spoilage fungi responsible for the deterioration of water yam.

Materials and methods

Sources of materials

Water yams (Dioscorea alata L.) with symptoms of post-harvest rot were obtained from yam barn of National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike. Fresh healthy water yams were collected from the same barn. Based on previous biological activities, leaves of Cymbopogon citratus, Chromolaena odorata and Newbouldia laevis were used. Cymbopogon citratus and Newbouldia laevis were collected from Okpuno, Awka while Chromolaena odorata was collected from National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike. The botanical identities of the plants were authenticated by the Horticulture unit of National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.

Sterilization of materials

All the equipment was sterilized according to the methods described by [48-51]. The glass wares were surface sterilized (to remove surface contaminants) with 70% ethanol and thoroughly rinsed with sterile distilled water. They were placed in racks to dry and were packed into the autoclave for sterilization at a temperature of 121 for 15 minutes at 15 psi.

Preparation of culture media

The culture media that was used for fungal growth and maintenance is Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). The PDA was prepared according to manufacturer’s recommendation by dissolving 39 g of PDA powder in one liter of distilled water in a 1000 ml round bottom flask. It was swirled and boiled to melt in a heater. It was sterilized with an autoclave at a temperature of 121℃ for 15 minutes. The medium was allowed to cool to 47℃ after which was poured into sterile plates (Petri dishes) and allowed to be solidified.

Isolation of fungal pathogens from rotten water yams

The Petri dishes were inoculated with water yam samples by cutting sections of approximately 2 mm cubes from the tissue at the junction between healthy and infected portion of the water yams with surface sterilized blade. They were surface sterilized (to remove surface contaminants) in 70% ethanol and then rinsed twice (one minute each wash) in sterile distilled water (SDW). The cut pieces of water yams were placed on sterile paper towels in a Laminar Airflow Hood Chamber for 10 minutes to dry and then placed onto PDA. The plates were incubated at 27℃ for four days and then examined daily for the development of fungi growth.

Sub-culturing/purification and identification of test fungi pathogens

When growth has established, subcultures were prepared using inocula from different organisms in the mixed cultures to obtain a pure culture. This was done by transferring hyphal tips from the colony edge of the mixed cultures to fresh plates of PDA using flame sterilized blades. After sub-culturing, the plates were incubated at 27℃ until pure cultures were obtained. The Petri dishes of pure cultures of the test fungi were then sealed with paraffin to prevent contamination. The resulting pure cultures were used for characterlization and subsequent identification of the fungi isolates with the aid of a compound microscope and identification guides [52,53].

Pathogenicity test

This test was carried out by using microorganisms from the rotten samples. Fresh healthy water yams were first washed with tap water and then surface sterilized with 70% ethanol solution. The washed yams were placed on sterile paper towels and allowed to dry for 12 minutes in a Laminar Airflow Hood. Sterile cork borer (5 mm diameter) was used to bore holes in the water yams. The parts of the water yams which were bored out at each point were kept in sterile dishes.

An agar block measuring 4 mm by 4 mm from growing cultures of each test isolates (pure cultures) was inoculated into the hole made with the aid of another cork borer (4 mm diameter). After the inoculation, the parts of the yam bored out was carefully replaced and sealed with sterile blue seal Vaseline to prevent contamination and labeled accordingly. A control experiment which had no isolate was set up (inoculated with agar plugs alone).

After inoculating the entire test isolates into their respective healthy yams, all the yams were incubated for 6 days in a humidity chamber. The yams were examined daily for evidence of rot such as softening, discolouration and offensive odour. At the end of the 6 days incubation period, the yams were carefully cut open along the line of incubation to expose the inner regions of the yams which was examined for rot. Where possible the length and girth of the rot area and those of the entire yams were measured with transparent ruler and recorded.

Preparation of plant extracts

The fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus, Chromolaena odorata and Newbouldia laevis were thoroughly washed with tap water and then with sterile distilled water (SDW) and were sundried for 5 days for milling. The dried samples were separately ground in a Laboratory Mill (Thomas Wiley model ED-5 made in USA) after which the ground samples were sieved to obtain powdered processed sample used for the extraction.

Using cold solvent extraction method [54-56]. 10 g, 20 g, 30 g, 40 g and 50 g portion of each processed samples were mixed with 100 ml of each solvent (aqueous and ethanol) separately in a bottle to produce 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% extract concentrations respectively. The extracts were sieved through with four layers of sterile cheese cloth and stored in sterile conical flask which were later used for mycelia growth inhibition.

Effect of plant extracts on fungal growth

Effect of plant extract on mycelia growth with test fungi was studied using the food poisoning techniques [11]. One milliliter of each plant extract concentrations (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) was dispensed per Petri dish and 9 ml of the media (molten PDA) was added to each of the Petri dish containing extract and carefully spread evenly over the plate. These were used for the inhibition of mycelia growth. The plates were gently rotated to ensure even dispersion of the extracts. The agar extract mixture was allowed to solidify and then inoculated at the center with a 4 mm diameter mycelia disc obtained from the colony edge of 7-day old pure cultures of test fungi. Each treatment was duplicated. The control set up consists of blank agar plate (no extract) inoculated with the test fungi as described above.

All the plates were incubated at 27±2℃ for 5 days and examined daily for growth and presence of inhibition. Colony diameter was taken as the mean growth along two directions on two pre-drawn perpendicular lines on the reverse side of the plates. The effectiveness of the extract was recorded in terms of percentage inhibition, which was calculated according to the methods described by Whips.

Percentage inhibition =

Where R1 is the farthest radial distance of pathogen in control plates, while R2 is the farthest radial distance of pathogen in extract incorporated agar plates.

The inhibition percentage was determined as a guide in selecting the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) that will be effective in controlling the rot-causing fungi. Extracts were rated for their inhibitory effects using the scale of Sangoyomi [11].

≤ 0% = no inhibition

> 0-20% = slight inhibition

> 20-50% = moderate inhibition

> 50-100% = effective inhibition

 100% = high inhibition

Phytochemical analysis

Some portions of the dried, ground leaves of Cymbopogon citratus, Chromolaena odorata, Newboludia laevis were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard methods [54,57-59], for the presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponin and flavonoid.

Determination of alkaloid using Harbone [54] method

Five grams of the sample was weighed into a 250-ml beaker and 200 ml of 10% acetic acid in ethanol was added and covered and allowed to stand for 4 hours. This was filtered, and the extract was concentrated on a water bath to one quarter of the original volume. Concentrated ammonium hydroxide was added drop-wise to the extract until the precipitation was complete. The whole solution was allowed to settle, and the precipitation was collected and washed with dilute ammonium hydroxide and then filtered. The residue is the alkaloid which was dried and weighed.

Determination of tannin by Van-Burden and Robinson [57] method

 Five hundred milligram of the sample was weighed into a 50 ml plastic bottle. 50 ml of distilled water was added and shaken for 1 hour in a mechanical shaker. This was filtered into a 50 ml volumetric flask and made up to the mark. Then 5 ml of the filtered was pipetted out into a test tube and mixed with 2 ml of 0.1 M Fecl3 in 0.1 NHCL and 0.008 M potassium ferrocyanide. The absorbence was measured at 120 nm within 10 min.

Determination of saponin

The method used was that of Obdoni and Ochuko [58]. The samples were ground and 20 g of each were put into a conical flask and 10℃m3 of 20% aqueous ethanol were added. The samples were heated over a hot water bath for 4 hours with continuous stirring at about 55℃. The mixture was filtered, and the residue re-extracted with another 200 ml of 20% ethanol. The combined extracts were reduced to 40 ml over water bath at about 90℃. The concentrate was transferred into a 250 ml separatory funnel and 20 ml of diethyl ether was added and shaken vigorously. The aqueous layer was recovered while the ether layer was discarded. The purification process was repeated. 60 ml of n-butanol was added. The combined n-butanol extracts were washed twice with 10 ml of 5% aqueous sodium chloride. The remaining solution was heated in a water bath. After evaporation, the samples were dried in the oven to a constant weight; the saponin content was calculated as percentage.

Determination of flavonoid by the method of Boham and Kocipal-Abyazan [59]

Ten gram of the plant sample was extracted repeatedly with 100 ml of 80% aqueous methanol at room temperature. The whole solution was filtered through Whatman filter paper No 42 (125 mm). The filtrate was later transferred into crucible and evaporated into dryness over a waterbath and weighed to a constant weight.

Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) via Statistical Analysis System (SAS) of Version 9.1 and means of treatment were compared using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at P<0.05. T-test was also used to compare the plant extracts at 0.05 significant level using statistical package for social science (SPSS Version 21).

Results

Isolation of fungal Pathogens from Rotten Water Yam Samples

The incidence of occurrence of fungi isolates associated with Dioscorea alata indicated that five fungi were isolated, and they included Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh, Fusarium solani Matt., Penicillium spp. and Rhizopus stolonifer Vuill. The results depicted that the most frequently occurring was Botryodiplodia theobromae at a frequency of 70% while the least occurring were Fusarium solani and Penicillium spp at a frequency of 1% each (Table 1).

Table 1. Incidence occurrence of fungi isolates associated with water yam

Organism

Percentage Occurrence

Botryodiplodia theobromae

70

Aspergillus niger

14

Fusarium solani

1

Penicillium spp

1

Rhizopus stolonifer

14

Pathogenicity test

The fungi tested included B. theobromae, A. niger, F. solani, Penicillium spp. and R. stolonifer were confirmed to cause the same disease and rot type noticed on the rot infected sample. The fungus B. theobromae was the most virulent, causing 20% rot on the Dioscorea alata while the least virulent was Penicillium spp., causing 0.5% rot on Dioscorea alata (Table 2).

Table 2. Pathogenicity test of fungi isolated

Organism

Percentage Occurrence

Botryodiplodia theobromae

20

Aspergillus niger

10

Fusarium solani

7

Penicillium spp

0.5

Rhizopus stolonifer

2.5

Effect of crude extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Chromolaena odorata and Newbouldia laevis on the mycelia growth of the test fungi

All the plant extracts showed varying degrees of inhibition on the test fungi, this was dependent on the concentration of the extract. With respect to ethanol, Cymbopogon citratus at 50% extract concentration showed the highest inhibitory effect of 46.00% (moderately effective) on Penicillium spp, this was significantly higher than other interactions, while the least inhibitory effects of 11.10% (slightly effective) each were recorded on Botryodiplodia theobromae at 10% and 30% extract concentration (Table 3). Cold water extract of Cymbopogon citratus at 50% extract concentration had the highest inhibitory effect of 39.00% (moderately effective) on Aspergillus niger, while the least inhibitory effect of 4.00% (slightly effective) was observed on Botryodiplodia theobromae at 10% extract concentration (Table 4).

Table 3. Minimum percentage inhibition of test fungi using C. citratus with ethanol extract

Organism

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

B. theobromae

11.10a

13.11c

11.10ab

33.08ac

39.44ab

A. niger

32.35ab

33.16ab

39.03ac

39.71ac

41.00cb

F. solani

13.11bc

12.02bc

11.23b

29.65c

43.30bc

Penicillium spp

17.01ac

30.16ab

30.03cb

44.00ab

46.00ab

R. stolonifer

13.11c

11.12ab

11.23b

11.65c

18.00bc

Means with the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT)

Table 4. Minimum percentage inhibition of test fungi using C. citratus with cold water extract

Organism

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

B. theobromae

4.00a

9.00b

13.10c

22.00ac

29.00ab

A. niger

33.88ac

36.33ac

29.00ab

37.71ab

39.00ac

F. solani

11.90c

18.12b

19.01b

19.05b

23.84bc

Penicillium spp

24.05ac

23.00ac

26.00ab

24.71ab

33.20c

R. stolonifer

15.76ab

16.77ab

19.92cb

21.23bc

21.00bc

Means with the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT)

Ethanol extracts of Chromolaena odorata at 50% extract concentration showed the highest inhibitory effects of 41.00% (moderately effective) each on Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp (Table 5) respectively, whereas the least inhibitory effect of 11.18% (slightly effective) was recorded on Botryodiplodia theobromae at 10% extract concentration. Cold water extract of Chromolaena odorata at 50% extract concentration showed the highest inhibitory effect of 39.00% (moderately effective) on Aspergillus niger, whereas the least inhibitory effect of 8.00% (slightly effective) was noticed against Botryodiplodia theobromae at 10% extract concentration (Table 6).

Table 5. Minimum percentage inhibition of test fungi using C. odorata with ethanol extract

Organism

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

B. theobromae

11.18a

15.03b

31.05c

33.08ac

39.44ab

A. niger

32.35ac

33.16ab

39.03ab

39.71ab

41.00ab

F. solani

13.11c

12.02ab

11.23b

29.65c

38.38bc

Penicillium spp

32.35ac

33.16ab

39.03ab

39.71ab

41.00ab

R. stolonifer

13.11c

12.02ab

11.23b

29.65c

38.38bc

Means with the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT)

Table 6. Minimum percentage inhibition of test fungi using C. odorata with cold water extract

Organism

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

B. theobromae

8.00c

17.88b

29.15c

31.16ac

32.10ab

A. niger

9.06ac

16.33ab

29.00ab

37.71ab

39.00ab

F. solani

16.88c

18.12b

19.03b

19.05b

25.99bc

Penicillium spp

21.05ac

22.00ac

24.00ab

24.71ab

30.20ab

R. stolonifer

14.00ab

16.77ab

18.00cb

22.01cb

21.00ac

Means with the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT)

Ethanol extract of Newbouldia laevis at 50% extract concentration showed the highest inhibitory effect of 49.11% (moderately effective) on Penicillium spp (Table 7), whereas the least inhibitory effect of 0.35% (slightly effective) was observed on Botryodiplodia theobromae at 20% extract concentration. Cold water extract of Newbouldia laevis at 50% extract concentration showed the highest inhibitory effect of 44.01% (moderately effective) on Penicillium spp (Table 8), whereas the least inhibitory effect of 3.04% (slightly effective) was noticed against Botryodiplodia theobromae at 40% extract concentration.

Table 7. Minimum percentage inhibition of test fungi using N. laevis with ethanol extract

Organism

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

B. theobromae

7.10ab

0.35ac

0.38ac

6.40ac

10.00ab

A. niger

9.48ab

23.95b

26.50c

27.03c

42.40bc

F. solani

18.66c

13.02c

22.90cb

29.65c

40.20c

Penicillium spp

17.01ac

19.10a

30.03cb

44.00ab

49.11bc

R. stolonifer

9.00c

11.12ab

9.77ab

8.65c

11.00sbc

Means with the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT)

Table 8. Minimum percentage inhibition of test fungi using N. laevis with cold water extract

Organism

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

B. theobromae

13.22b

12.95ac

23.80ac

3.40ac

22.00ab

A. niger

10.33ba

10.95ba

26.50c

27.03c

42.40bc

F. solani

14.06c

26.02c

22.90c

29.65cb

24.20cb

Penicillium spp

16.00ac

30.00a

31.03cb

19.00ab

44.01bc

R. stolonifer

13.33c

15.12ab

22.01ab

8.05c

31.10bc

Means with the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT)

Phytochemical screening of leaf extracts of C. citratus, C. odorata and N. laevis

Quantitative analysis

The quantitative assay revealed that N.laevis was the highest in alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin and tannin contents with values of 3.06±0.03, 2.09±0.08, 2.05± 0.01 and 2.05±0.01 respectively (Table 9). The contents of the other phytochemicals are also shown in the table.

Table 9. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of C. citratus, C. odorata and N. laevis

Plant Extracts

Alkaloid

Flavonoid

Saponin

Tannin

T- Statistics

C. Citratus

-2.96±0.11

-1.72±0.11

0.06±0.05

0.06±0.05

0.021

C. Odorata

2.00±0.11

1.06±0.01

1.03±0.77

0.03±1.07

0.701

N. laevis

3.06±0.03

2.09±0.08

2.05±0.01

2.05±0.01

0.035

T-test comparison between ethanol and cold-water extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Chromolaena odorata and Newbouldia laevis

Comparison between cold water and ethanol extracts of C. citratus showed that ethanol extract gave a mean percentage inhibition of 57.88±1.01 which is significant (P<0.05) compared to 46.09±1.23 of cold water extract. The mean percentage inhibition of ethanol extract of C. odorata (62.76±1.45) showed a highly significant difference (P<0.05) from the mean percentage inhibition recorded for the cold-water extract (34.72±0.11). The mean percentage inhibition of ethanol extract of N. laevis (48.03±2.77) showed a significant difference (P<0.05) from the mean percentage inhibition recorded for the cold-water extract (39.88±2.44) (Table 10).

Table 10. T-test comparison between ethanol and cold water extracts of C. citratus, C.odorata and N. laevis

Plant Extracts

Cold Water

Ethanol

T- Statistics

Cymbopogon citratus

46.09±1.23

57.88±1.01

-1.035

Chromolaena odorata

34.72±0.11

62.76±1.45

-2.00

Newbouldia laevis

39.88±2.44

48.03±2.77

-2.701

Discussion

The organisms associated with deterioration of water yams (Dioscorea alata L.) in this study were Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh, Fusarium solani Matt., Penicillium spp and Rhizopus stolonifer Vuill. B. theobromae was the highest in occurrence while F. solani and Penicillium spp were the least. The result of this study showed that plant extracts, Cymbopogon citratus (DC), Chromolaena odorata (L.) and Newbouldia laevis (P.Beauv.) showed antifungal activity against the test organisms above at various concentration of the plant extracts.

The inhibitory effect of ethanol and cold-water extracts of C. citratus, C. odorata and N. laevis at five different concentrations (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) were evaluated in order to develop affordable and simpler methods of controlling deterioration of water yams. The ethanol and cold-water extracts of the plants at all the concentrations were inhibitory on the test organisms in vitro, with ethanol extract being the more potent. This is in line with observations made by Okigbo and Odurukwe [24] and that of Sangoyomi [11]. The inhibitory effect on the test fungi differs with the plant materials and solvent of extraction. Generally, the ethanol extracts were more effective than their corresponding cold-water extracts of the plant samples. This can be attributed to the fact that ethanol is an organic solvent and will dissolve organic compounds better, hence, extract, the active compounds required for anti-microbial activities. The difference in the fungitoxic potential between extractions medium can also be as a result of the different susceptibility of each of the test isolates to different concentrations of the extracts. This also agrees with the findings of some workers [24,27,60,61]. As the concentration of the extracts increased, the level of inhibition on the mycelial growth of the fungi increased. This agrees with the reports of Ekwenye and Elegalam, Okigbo and Igwe [62]. This is also similar to the results obtained by Suleiman [63] who stated a significant difference between mycelial growth value recorded on the various plant extracts concentration. This suggests that there is difference in the solvent soluble antifungal elements in the respective leaf extracts as reported by Iwu [42] and Sofowora [64]. B. theobromae showed slightly effective and moderately effective inhibition in all the extract concentrations tested. This is similar to the result obtained by Sangoyomi [11] on post-harvest rot of yam but with different plant extracts. She reported slightly effective inhibition of C. odorata on B. theobromae.

According to Srinivauson, et al. [65], the presence of bioactive substances has been reported to confer resistance to fungi, bacteria and pests. This therefore, explains the demonstration of antifungal activities by the extracts used in this work. Thus, the antifungal properties of these plant extracts are probably due to the presence of phytochemicals which are antimicrobial agents [66], and inhibitory to the growth of these pathogens [67]. Phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts showed that N. laevis contained more phytochemicals when compared to other plant extracts which justifies its highest inhibition on the test organisms at 50% concentration. Ethanol extracts of C. odorata showed highest inhibition on the test organisms while ethanol extracts of N. laevis showed the least inhibitory effect on the test fungi.     

Pharmacological and medicinal potentials of all these phytochemicals were proved by the reports of several workers [68,71].

This study reveals the fungitoxic potentials of ethanol and cold-water extracts of C. citratus, C. odorata and N. laevis at different concentrations and could be further developed to produce natural fungicides. The presence of fungicidal substances in these plant species agrees with other workers [11,24,27]. Hence, it could be inferred from the result obtained in this work, that both ethanol and cold-water extracts of C. citratus, C. odorata and N. laevis could be developed as natural fungicides in the control of microorganisms that cause the deterioration of water yams.

Conclusion

This study demonstrated that C. citratus (lemon grass), C. odorata (siam weed) and N. laevis (ogirisi) showed antifungal activity against the test organisms. This finding is important from the point of view of controlling diseases associated with B. theobromae, A. niger, F. solani, Penicillium spp and R. stolonifer that affects plant and animal without the use of chemicals which cause environmental pollution. The antifungal potentials of C. citratus, C. odorata and N. laevis as observed in this study therefore, raise hope in the use of natural plants to control fungi pathogens and to replace the synthetic dangerous and expensive chemicals used at present. The cooperation of mycologists, breeders, chemists, ecologists and others in the field of agriculture is necessary to achieve maximum progress in this important field of research. 

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Editorial Information

Editor-in-Chief

Renee Dufault
Food Ingredient and Health Research Institute

Article Type

Research Article

Publication history

Received date: November 21, 2017
Accepted date: December 22, 2017
Published date: December 26, 2017

Copyright

©2017 Okigbo RN. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Citation

Okigbo RN, Ezebo RO (2017) Effect of leaf extracts of Cymbopogon Citratus, Chromolaena Odorata and Newbouldia Laevis on the Dioscorea Alata rot. Integr Food Nutr Metab 4: doi: 10.15761/IFNM.1000205

Corresponding author

Ezebo RO

Department of Botany, Faculty of Bioscience, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B., 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria, Tel: 08060044563

Table 1. Incidence occurrence of fungi isolates associated with water yam

Organism

Percentage Occurrence

Botryodiplodia theobromae

70

Aspergillus niger

14

Fusarium solani

1

Penicillium spp

1

Rhizopus stolonifer

14

Table 2. Pathogenicity test of fungi isolated

Organism

Percentage Occurrence

Botryodiplodia theobromae

20

Aspergillus niger

10

Fusarium solani

7

Penicillium spp

0.5

Rhizopus stolonifer

2.5

Table 3. Minimum percentage inhibition of test fungi using C. citratus with ethanol extract

Organism

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

B. theobromae

11.10a

13.11c

11.10ab

33.08ac

39.44ab

A. niger

32.35ab

33.16ab

39.03ac

39.71ac

41.00cb

F. solani

13.11bc

12.02bc

11.23b

29.65c

43.30bc

Penicillium spp

17.01ac

30.16ab

30.03cb

44.00ab

46.00ab

R. stolonifer

13.11c

11.12ab

11.23b

11.65c

18.00bc

Means with the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT)

Table 4. Minimum percentage inhibition of test fungi using C. citratus with cold water extract

Organism

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

B. theobromae

4.00a

9.00b

13.10c

22.00ac

29.00ab

A. niger

33.88ac

36.33ac

29.00ab

37.71ab

39.00ac

F. solani

11.90c

18.12b

19.01b

19.05b

23.84bc

Penicillium spp

24.05ac

23.00ac

26.00ab

24.71ab

33.20c

R. stolonifer

15.76ab

16.77ab

19.92cb

21.23bc

21.00bc

Means with the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT)

Table 5. Minimum percentage inhibition of test fungi using C. odorata with ethanol extract

Organism

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

B. theobromae

11.18a

15.03b

31.05c

33.08ac

39.44ab

A. niger

32.35ac

33.16ab

39.03ab

39.71ab

41.00ab

F. solani

13.11c

12.02ab

11.23b

29.65c

38.38bc

Penicillium spp

32.35ac

33.16ab

39.03ab

39.71ab

41.00ab

R. stolonifer

13.11c

12.02ab

11.23b

29.65c

38.38bc

Means with the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT)

Table 6. Minimum percentage inhibition of test fungi using C. odorata with cold water extract

Organism

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

B. theobromae

8.00c

17.88b

29.15c

31.16ac

32.10ab

A. niger

9.06ac

16.33ab

29.00ab

37.71ab

39.00ab

F. solani

16.88c

18.12b

19.03b

19.05b

25.99bc

Penicillium spp

21.05ac

22.00ac

24.00ab

24.71ab

30.20ab

R. stolonifer

14.00ab

16.77ab

18.00cb

22.01cb

21.00ac

Means with the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT)

Table 7. Minimum percentage inhibition of test fungi using N. laevis with ethanol extract

Organism

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

B. theobromae

7.10ab

0.35ac

0.38ac

6.40ac

10.00ab

A. niger

9.48ab

23.95b

26.50c

27.03c

42.40bc

F. solani

18.66c

13.02c

22.90cb

29.65c

40.20c

Penicillium spp

17.01ac

19.10a

30.03cb

44.00ab

49.11bc

R. stolonifer

9.00c

11.12ab

9.77ab

8.65c

11.00sbc

Means with the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT)

Table 8. Minimum percentage inhibition of test fungi using N. laevis with cold water extract

Organism

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

B. theobromae

13.22b

12.95ac

23.80ac

3.40ac

22.00ab

A. niger

10.33ba

10.95ba

26.50c

27.03c

42.40bc

F. solani

14.06c

26.02c

22.90c

29.65cb

24.20cb

Penicillium spp

16.00ac

30.00a

31.03cb

19.00ab

44.01bc

R. stolonifer

13.33c

15.12ab

22.01ab

8.05c

31.10bc

Means with the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT)

Table 9. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of C. citratus, C. odorata and N. laevis

Plant Extracts

Alkaloid

Flavonoid

Saponin

Tannin

T- Statistics

C. Citratus

-2.96±0.11

-1.72±0.11

0.06±0.05

0.06±0.05

0.021

C. Odorata

2.00±0.11

1.06±0.01

1.03±0.77

0.03±1.07

0.701

N. laevis

3.06±0.03

2.09±0.08

2.05±0.01

2.05±0.01

0.035

Table 10. T-test comparison between ethanol and cold water extracts of C. citratus, C.odorata and N. laevis

Plant Extracts

Cold Water

Ethanol

T- Statistics

Cymbopogon citratus

46.09±1.23

57.88±1.01

-1.035

Chromolaena odorata

34.72±0.11

62.76±1.45

-2.00

Newbouldia laevis

39.88±2.44

48.03±2.77

-2.701