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The effects for the number of beech pollinosis patients by low temperature and a good beech harvest

Mayumi Fujii

Fujii Clinic 6-19 Ginzamotomachi, Ito-shi, Shizuoka 414-0028, Japan

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nihon University Hospital Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan

E-mail : aa

Kiyoshi Makiyama

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nihon University Hospital Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Kenji Okazaki

Okazaki Otorhinolaryngology Clinic Toshima-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Kenichi Hisamatsu

Hisamatsu Otorhinolaryngology Clinic Tsuchiura-shi, Ibaraki, Japan

DOI: 10.15761/JTS.1000218

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Abstract

Backgrounds: Beech pollinosis, which can cause anaphylaxis, has not been regarded as a risk and hardly studied in Japan. We think there is a risk that beech pollinosis may be a problem in the future in Japan and other countries. This study is to improve the prevention and treatment of beech pollinosis.

Results: When it was a good beech harvest and low temperature at the same time, beech pollinosis patients were likely to be increased.

Conclusions: It is necessary to pursue further study on the effects of low temperature and scattering beech pollen count for the number of beech pollinosis patients. Beech should be included in the allergen test kits including 36 or 39 allergens of National Health Insurance in Japan, which could improve the prevention and treatment of beech pollinosis.

Key words

beech, Fagaceae, pollinosis, mast

Introduction

Beech pollinosis has so much risk that presents anaphylaxis, but research reports are few. First, we briefly describe beech pollinosis and beech characteristics.

About beech pollinosis

  1. Combined food allergies, there is a risk of leading to anaphylactic shock.
  2. Beech pollinosis patients are hardly counted because the allergen test kits containing 36 or 39 allergens of National Health Insurance have not included beech as an allergen in Japan.
  3. Beech has common epitopes with birch.
  4. The treatment is same as other pollinosis.

Characteristics of beech

  1. Take toxins from the roots and inhibit the growth of other trees.
  2. In Japan, besides the Shirakami Sanchi, there are large beech forests in Hakusan and Fukushima.
  3. There is a seed dispersal system called mast.
    1. A beech mast correlates with average low temperature in April and May in the previous year [1].
    2. A beech mast is caused by annual fluctuation of nitrogen resources [2].

It is considered that beech pollinosis has not been regarded as a risk in Japan because there are few large beech forests and the patients do not exist nationwide; how is beech pollinosis reacted where people live near large beech forest then?

We asked a literature/interview survey at Shirakami Sanchi which is the largest beech forest in Japan. If there are a lot of beech pollinosis patients around Shirakami Sanchi, there should be descriptions of beech pollinosis in some literature, and there should be some note of food that induces anaphylaxis.

However, in Hirosaki Library, not far from Shirakami Sanchi, there was a description of apple pollinosis, but there was no description of beech pollinosis. And there was no one who knew beech pollinosis in interview survey in Sirakami Sanchi.

Beech pollinosis might be difficult to be onset. Be that as it may, as there are the patients, there should be a mechanism of onset. We make the following hypothesis from the relationship between a beech mast and weather. In Hokkaido type beech case, it is a good harvest when the temperature in April and May in the previous year is low[1]. If a good harvest year goes on, when it is a good harvest and low temperature at the same time, with one's weakened immune system, beech pollinosis patients increase.

However, it is not known whether the correlation between a beech mast and weather is applicable in Honshu. Neither is it known whether beech pollinosis would be easy to onset when it is a good beech harvest and it has a lower temperature than usual at the same time. We investigated whether the correlation between a beech mast and low temperature can be applied at Ito in Honshu, whether beech pollinosis patients increase when it is a good beech harvest and a low temperature.

Materials and Methods

We measured the number of airborne beech pollen and explore whether beech pollinosis patients will come out when the number of airborne beech pollen is high and the temperature is low. 2004-2017 in Ito City Shizuoka, near the beech forest of Mt. Amagi, airborne beech pollen was measured by a Durham sampler. Ikuse's pollen diagram was applied [3] .

Weather information by the Meteorological Agency is used; the data at Ajiro where is near to Ito are applied.

All the numerical values are analyzed by Microsoft Excel 2010. The standard deviations of the data are calculated with STDEVPA function. The correlations among the data are calculated with Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. We did regression analysis between weather and beech pollen data with EZR [4].

Result

At Ito in Honshu there was no correlation between a beech mast and weather [5]. Pollen dispersion of Fagaceae from March to June at Ito during 2004 to 2017 (Table 1): year dates of initial pollen observed, of pollen release began, of final pollen observation, of maximum pollen dispersion and maximum pollen counts. Each average value and standard deviations: 7±21-Mar, 25±8-Mar, 14±11-Jul, 1±9-May and 135±95 grain/cm2 . We found that the airborne pollen count of the date of maximum pollen dispersion tends to be large in the year with much total airborne pollen although there are not correlations between total airborne pollen and the date of initial pollen observed, between the date of pollen release began and the date of final pollen observation as a result of the regression analysis.

Table 1. Pollen dispersion of Fagaceae from March to June at Ito during 2004 to 2017.

 

March

April

May

June

March - June

2004

8

1118

218

46

1390

2005

0

282

181

12

475

2006

6

233

259

17

515

2007

13

371

515

11

910

2008

0

434

255

21

710

2009

14

875

475

18

1382

2010

8

186

404

27

625

2011

28

667

1178

34

1907

2012

14

140

440

23

617

2013

23

933

447

23

1426

2014

24

766

993

45

1828

2015

14

786

361

10

1171

2016

9

636

475

23

1143

2017

4

657

973

29

1663

mean

12

577

512

24

1126

S.D.

±8

±254

±289

±9

±468

Pollen count/cm2

On the other hand, in 2014, when a good beech harvest year went on and average low temperature of previous April and May was extremely low, two beech pollinosis patients were found and potential beech pollinosis patients seemed increased at Fujii Clinick in Ito City. Airborne beech pollen count and weather (Table 2). Each average values and standard deviations of the amount of rainfall and average low temperature from previous April to previous May which effect on flower bud formation of the family Fagaceae, 364±123mm and 12.6±1.6°C. The average values and standard deviations of the amount of rainfall, temperature and total sunshine duration from April to June when beech pollen is scattered are 588±148mm 17.9±1.0°C, 508±71 hours.

Table 2. Pollen dispersion of Fagaceae, Climate and correlation coefficient at Ito during 2004 to 2017.

 

Total pollen

Average low temperature (°C) of previous April and May

Amount of rainfall (mm) during previous April and May

Average temperature (°C) of April, May and June 

Amount of rainfall (mm) during April and June

Total sunshine duration during April and June (h)

count4)

(grain/cm2)

Y

X2

 

 

 

X3

2004

1388

13.2

311.5

19.2

621

504

2005

483

13.7

221

18.1

445.5

539

2006

508

12.4

340

17.6

533.5

352

2007

910

12.6

265

14.7

425.5

570

2008

710

12.4

580

17.5

981

403

2009

1383

13.2

233.5

18.7

521.5

508

2010

625

13.9

543

17.7

686.5

453

2011

1908

12.1

460.5

18.2

624.5

508

2012

617

12.4

510

17.5

803

465

2013

1432

13.0

510

18.2

499

522

2014

1828

7.4

302

18.2

572

599

2015

1171

12.6

267.5

18.5

509

486

2016

1143

13.8

258

18.8

574.5

614

2017

1663

14.0

292.5

18.3

430

583

mean

1126

12.6

364

17.9

588

508

s.d.

±474

±1.6

±123

±1.0

±148

±71

correlation coefficient

-0.37

-0.17

0.38

-0.28

0.56

Seasonal total pollen count release began to final pollen observation. The pollen counts of masting year are colored gray.

The result of the regression analysis to calculate airborne pollen count of the family Fagaceae(Y) among airborne pollen count of previous year(X1), average low temperature from previous April to previous May(X2) and total sunshine duration from April to June(X3) from 2005 to 2017: although there is not significant correlation among (Y), (X1), (X2) and (X3) (p value>10%), (p value>3%) Y=3.60* X3-69

Discussion

When the temperature is lower than usual and it is a good beech harvest at the same time, bearing beech pollenosis in mind, you would not miss it; people should take care of themselves then.

If the number of scattering beech pollen increases by the beech forest regeneration project etc., the number of beech pollinosis patients would also increase. Before the number of anaphylactic shock patients increases and becoming a social problem, it is necessary to study how low temperature and scattering beech pollen count triggers beech pollinosis, and it might be necessary to adjust scattering beech pollen count.

We are sorry that we could not use big data of beach pollinosis patients; it is difficult to count beech pollinosis patients because beech has not been included as an allergen in the allergen test kits including 36 or 39 allergens of National Health Insurance in Japan. We hope that beech will be included as an allergen in them, which must improve not only the researches but also the prevention and treatment of beech pollinosis.

Acknowledgment

We thank Prof. Seiichi Udagawa at the Department of Medicine, Nihon University for the advice about statistical methods, visiting Prof. Norio Sahashi at the Faculty of Science, Toho University for some advice, Naofumi Yamada: freelance writer, for the survey at Shirakami, Emiko Yamaguchi and Harumi Tsuchiya: Clinical Technologists, Misa Fujii: translator.

References

  1. HirokazuKon (2009) Evolutionary advantages and proximate factors of mast seeding in Fagus crenata. Hokkaido Forestry Research Institute46:53-83.
  2. Abe T,Tachiki Y, Kon H, Nagasaka A, Onodera K, et al. (2016) Parameterization and validation of a resource budget model for masting using spatiotemporal flowering data of individual trees. Ecology Letters.
  3. Jun Nagano, Sankei Nishima, Reiko Kishikawa, Norio Sahashi, Toshitaka Yokoyama(1992) Nihonrettou no Kuuchuukafun II (Airborne pollen of Japanese Islands) Hokuryukan12-13
  4. Kanda K (2013) Investigation of the freely available easy-to-use software ‘EZR’for medical statistics. Bone Marrow Transplant48:452-458. [Crossref]
  5. Fujii M, Okazaki K, Makiyama K, Hisamatsu K (2013) Tree pollen dispersion in Ito City, Shizuoka Prefecture. Arerugi62: 1522-1533.[Crossref]

Editorial Information

Editor-in-Chief

Article Type

Research Article

Publication History

Received date: March 3, 2018
Accepted date: March 9, 2018
Published date: March 12, 2018

Copyright

©2018 Fujii M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Citation

Fujii M, Makiyama K, Okazaki K, Hisamatsu K (2018)The effects for the number of beech pollinosis patients by low temperature and a good beech harvest. J Transl Sci 4: DOI: 10.15761/JTS.1000218

Corresponding author

Mayumi Fujii

Fujii Clinic 6-19 Ginzamotomachi, Ito-shi, Shizuoka 414-0028; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nihon University Hospital Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan, Tel. 0557-35-2000; Fax: 0557-35-2007

Table 1. Pollen dispersion of Fagaceae from March to June at Ito during 2004 to 2017.

 

March

April

May

June

March - June

2004

8

1118

218

46

1390

2005

0

282

181

12

475

2006

6

233

259

17

515

2007

13

371

515

11

910

2008

0

434

255

21

710

2009

14

875

475

18

1382

2010

8

186

404

27

625

2011

28

667

1178

34

1907

2012

14

140

440

23

617

2013

23

933

447

23

1426

2014

24

766

993

45

1828

2015

14

786

361

10

1171

2016

9

636

475

23

1143

2017

4

657

973

29

1663

mean

12

577

512

24

1126

S.D.

±8

±254

±289

±9

±468

Pollen count/cm2

Table 2. Pollen dispersion of Fagaceae, Climate and correlation coefficient at Ito during 2004 to 2017.

 

Total pollen

Average low temperature (°C) of previous April and May

Amount of rainfall (mm) during previous April and May

Average temperature (°C) of April, May and June 

Amount of rainfall (mm) during April and June

Total sunshine duration during April and June (h)

count4)

(grain/cm2)

Y

X2

 

 

 

X3

2004

1388

13.2

311.5

19.2

621

504

2005

483

13.7

221

18.1

445.5

539

2006

508

12.4

340

17.6

533.5

352

2007

910

12.6

265

14.7

425.5

570

2008

710

12.4

580

17.5

981

403

2009

1383

13.2

233.5

18.7

521.5

508

2010

625

13.9

543

17.7

686.5

453

2011

1908

12.1

460.5

18.2

624.5

508

2012

617

12.4

510

17.5

803

465

2013

1432

13.0

510

18.2

499

522

2014

1828

7.4

302

18.2

572

599

2015

1171

12.6

267.5

18.5

509

486

2016

1143

13.8

258

18.8

574.5

614

2017

1663

14.0

292.5

18.3

430

583

mean

1126

12.6

364

17.9

588

508

s.d.

±474

±1.6

±123

±1.0

±148

±71

correlation coefficient

-0.37

-0.17

0.38

-0.28

0.56

Seasonal total pollen count release began to final pollen observation. The pollen counts of masting year are colored gray.