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Relationship between level of knowledge and use of contraceptive methods in a university population: a descriptive study

Sebastian Sanz Martos

Department of Psychology, University of Jaen, Andalusia, Spain

E-mail : bhuvaneswari.bibleraaj@uhsm.nhs.uk

María Zoraida Clavijo Chamorro

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Occupational Therapy Cáceres, University of Extremadura, Spain

Mario Santiago Campaña

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Occupational Therapy Cáceres, University of Extremadura, Spain

Argeme Serradilla Fernández

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Occupational Therapy Cáceres, University of Extremadura, Spain

Adela gomez luque

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Occupational Therapy Cáceres, University of Extremadura, Spain

DOI: 10.15761/NPC.1000181

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Abstract

The age period of youth is a period of risk for the onset of pregnancy. For prevention, have designed educational programs based on the increased level of knowledge, seeking to improve the rate of use of contraceptive methods, however, attitudes have not been valued. Objective: To establish the relationship between the level of knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality and contraception in college population. Methodology: descriptive correlational study. Results: 62 students participated in the study were women 42. The average age of the sample was 20.76 years. When we analyze the relationship between the level of knowledge and attitudes towards contraception, we obtain the result that there is a weak and not significant correlation between the two variables (s=0.108; p=0.404). Conclusion: We cannot say that there is a relationship between the level of knowledge they had and score participants presenting on the scale of attitudes.

Introduction

The youth population is defined by the World Health Organization as one whose age is between 15 and 24 years. Youth is a period characterized by impulsiveness and risk-taking behaviors. This population feels invulnerable to the adoption of risk behaviors which, along with the search for its own identity, leading to a need for experimentation, which conditions early sexual initiation with the risk of unwanted pregnancies, abortions and infections sexually transmitted. As additional risk factors have been observed in recent years a decline in the age of onset of sexual relations, ranking according to the National Survey of Sexual Health of the year 2009 [1,2] at 15.84 years for men and 16.34 years for women Group age 16 to 24, It is considered that the success of sex education programs lies in the articulation of three variables: knowledge, procedures and attitudes. Educational programs work only with the knowledge and procedures through educational information and specific behavioral indications. An educational program to be effective you need to address attitudes with participants about the topic and based on attitudes that have focused the program looking for a change in the attitude of the person to the object or situation that plantea [3].

When assessing attitudes is necessary to do so in terms of gender as doing research conducted by Heras Sevilla, et al. [4], showing us how attitudes and interests with adolescent males are different from those of women. In males increased interest is observed on aspects related to actual sexual relationship and contraception. Women show more interest towards pregnancy, which is not shown in males along with an interest in pain during the first intercourse. Research Brown, et al. [5], highlights the importance of possession of correct information as a way to develop positive attitudes towards contraception.

General purpose: Establish the relationship between the level of knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality and contraception in college population

Material and methods

Spain has a fertility rate for the age group 15 to 19 in 2016 from 12.44 pregnancies per 1000 pregnancies women and 21.19 for the group of 20 to 24 years [6]. The importance of prevention is determined by the functional consequences of an unwanted pregnancy has been found to be more severe for teens who have a pregnancy under the age of 17 years. In the period of youth age, they are more important the consequences of psychological, social and educational type. From the moment that she knows you have become pregnant unwillingly is exposed to the occurrence of psychological disorders such as anxiety, feelings of hopelessness, feeling no way out, feelings of guilt for having failed his family environment, what sometimes the abandonment of the couple or refusal to take paternity adds. As educational consequences it shows that many young people have to leave their studies which limits their future opportunities at the level laboral [7,8].

  • Design: Descriptive correlational study.
  • Sample: Study participants were students of 2nd degree course in Nursing at the University of Jaen, aged 18 and 24 years.
  • Data collection: Between February and March 2018, students responded during the theoretical and practical nursing course in childhood and adolescence sessions.
  • Instruments used: To carry out this work two scales validated by Oliva and cols [9] were used. The scale to assess the level of knowledge about sexuality and contraception consisted of 12 items with three possible answers (True-False-not know, no answer). The scale on attitudes to contraception is composed of 10 items evaluated by Likert (1-5) scale.

Results and discussion

62 students participated in the study of whom 42 were women. The mean age of the sample was 20.76 years (standard deviation [SD]=1.914).

The average score of level of knowledge about sexuality and contraception is 8.85; SD=1.8 points, while the average score for attitudes is 43.81; DE=6.78 points. 

To determine whether scores on the variables level of knowledge and attitudes towards contraception were distributed normally an exploratory analysis was performed. The results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicated that scores on both variables deviate significantly from a normal distribution (z=0.183, p <0.05 for the level of knowledge and z=0.183; p<0.05).

When analyzing the differences depending on sex of participants by Mann-Whitney U test we obtain as a result we cannot reject the null hypothesis of equality in the level of knowledge and level of attitudes (Z=-0,073; p=0943 to the level of knowledge and Z=-0.84; P=0.401)

Both variables having a different distribution than normal, we calculate the correlation between the two variables using the Spearman Rho. We obtain the result that there is a weak and not significant correlation between the two variables (s=0.108; p=0.404).

Conclusion

In view of our results we cannot say that there is a relationship between the level of knowledge that had the participants and presented the score on the scale of attitudes. Our result disagrees with the comments made by Brown, et al. [5], where the authors explain the importance of having a high level of knowledge to form a correct opinion that conditions of significant way the attitudes of a person and thus in future sex more likely to adopt safer sexual behaviors.

Additional research evaluating the relationship between two variables, and an analysis by sex with a larger number of participants and similar proportions between groups that allow us to see the relationship between the two variables are necessary.

References

  1. Ministry of health, social services and equality (2009) National Survey of Sexual Health.
  2. Spanish Society of Contraception (2016) Survey of contraception in Spain.
  3. Muchcco Anampa LV, Zavaleta Luján J, Vargas Zafra L, Munares García O (2012) Knowledge, attitudes and family communication against early sexual intercourse among adolescent students of two national educational institutions start. National University of San Marcos.
  4. Heras Sevilla D, F. (2009) Ortega Lara attitudes and concerns about sexuality in adolescence: gender differences. INFAD: Journal of Psychology (IJODAEP) 4: 335-344.
  5. Browns KE, Arden MA, Hurst KM (2007) A quantitative analysis of hormonal contraceptive accounts of use: Experiences and beliefs of British adolescent. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 12: 269-278. [Crossref]
  6. Statistics National Institute (2016) Fertility rate by age of the mother.
  7. Posada C (2004) Teenage pregnancy: not an option but a lack of options. Sexol Rev Soc 24: 4-10.
  8. Morales Diaz E, Solanelles Rojas AM, SR González Mora, O. Gómez Miranda (2013) Unwanted pregnancy in female college students. Rev cubana Med Mil 42: 153-163.
  9. Oliva, Serra L, R. Vallejo Sexuality and contraception in young Andalusians. quantitative study (1993) Sevilla University. Andalusian Health Service. Junta de Andalucía. Sevilla: Ministry of Health.

Article Type

Research Article

Publication history

Received date: March 25, 2018
Accepted date: April 17, 2018
Published date: April 20, 2018

Copyright

© 2018 Martos SS. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Citation

Martos SS (2018) Relationship between level of knowledge and use of contraceptive methods in a university population: a descriptive study. Nurs Palliat Care 3: DOI: 10.15761/NPC.1000181

Corresponding author

María zoraida clavijo Chamorro

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Occupational Therapy Cáceres, University of Extremadura, Spain

E-mail : bhuvaneswari.bibleraaj@uhsm.nhs.uk

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