Follow us on :


Take a look at the Recent articles

Radiation necrosis after definitive chemo-radiation of anal canal squamous cell carcinoma

Tangel Chang

Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospital, Cleveland Medical Center, 11100 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA

E-mail : bhuvaneswari.bibleraaj@uhsm.nhs.uk

Joseph Trunzo

Colon and Rectal Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 18101 Lorain Ave, Cleveland OH 44111, USA

Aryavarta Kumar

Department of Radiation Oncology, Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, 10701 East Boulevard, Cleveland OH 44016, USA

DOI: 10.15761/TCRC.1000107

Article
Article Info
Author Info
Figures & Data

Abstract

Anal cancer comprises 2.5% of all newly diagnosed digestive system malignancies in the United States with 8600 new diagnoses projected in 2018 [1]. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histology with a strong association with HPV status.  Historically, abdominoperineal resection was the standard treatment for anal cancer which resulted in a permanent colostomy, with a 5-year overall survival rate of 45-86% [2,3]. In 1974, an innovative study by Nigro et al. examining neoadjuvant chemo-radiation prior to surgery and found that there were complete responses and questioned whether surgery was needed at all in the upfront management for anal cancer [4,5]. After many other studies [6-9] confirmed these findings, concurrent chemo-radiation has revolutionized the care of anal cancer by allowing for organ preservation in over 75% of patients and achieving excellent local control [5]. While improved delivery of treatment through the use of IMRT has helped reduce short and long term side effects [9,10] we report on an interesting case of ischemic necrosis of the anal canal after definitive chemo-radiation.

Case Presentation

The patient is a forty-eight year old Caucasian female (ECOG Performance Status 0) who presented with several months of a tender peri-anal mass.  Physical exam revealed a 2-cm condyloma in the right anterolateral aspect of the anal canal. Excision biopsy performed by a colorectal surgeon revealed invasive moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with negative margins.  HPV status was not tested.  Systemic imaging showed no evidence of regional or distant metastasis and was staged cT2N0M0, stage II (AJCC 7th edition). Her past medical history was significant only for hypertension. She had a 15 pack year smoking history and quit smoking cigarettes a year prior to her anal cancer diagnosis. Her medications were potassium but she also took vitamin supplements.  She used Tylenol EX 1000mg for pain and Ativan 0.5 mg for anxiety as needed.  She did not have any known family members with malignancy. She had no history of previous radiation therapy, connective tissue disorder, inflammatory bowel disease, or autoimmune disease.  A multidisciplinary tumor board recommended definitive chemo-radiation for her anal cancer.  Her radiation field covered the pelvic lymph nodes at risk, which included the internal and external iliac, pre-sacral, peri-rectal, and superficial inguinal lymph nodes bilaterally; these lymph node regions were covered with 45 Gy in 25 fractions, at 1.8 Gy per fraction.  The meso-rectum and the anal canal were treated with a sequential boost with an additional 3 fractions to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions, at 1.8 Gy per fraction, using 6 MV photons in a 7-field step and shoot intensity modulated radiation technique (IMRT). Concurrent chemotherapy was continuous infusion 5-FU, 1000 mg/m2, for 96 hours (day 1 – 4; day 29 – 32), and mitomycin C, 10 mg/m2 (day 1 and 29).  There were no unplanned treatment breaks and chemo-radiation was completed in 37 days.  She developed loose bowel movements and moist desquamation in the bilateral groin regions and anus; Imodium, Aquaphor and Silvidene were recommended.  During the last two weeks of her treatment, she was prescribed oxycodone and anusol to help with pain and swelling of the anal canal.  She lost 4 lbs from her pre-treatment weight.

She was seen at one month post radiation for routine follow up.  While her radiation dermatitis had resolved, she had persistent tenesmus, anal discomfort, and rectal spasms.  Her 3-month post treatment PET/CT revealed an interval increase in intensity of the patient’s rectal mass, SUV 12.7 compared to 10.7 prior to treatment.  Anoscopy was performed and did not reveal any signs of residual disease.  Unfortunately, her symptoms worsened and she developed rectal incontinence that affected her work schedule and her personal relationships.  At 5 months post chemo-radiation, a formal exam under anesthesia was performed which revealed extensive circumferential tissue necrosis with exudative debris.  These areas were debrided and biopsied.  The pathology revealed extensive necrosis with ulcerated fibro-connective tissue and atypical mesenchymal spindle cells, compatible with radiation effect. There was acute inflammation seen in some areas with no evidence of malignancy.  She had no signs of disease recurrence.  She did, however, continue to have uncontrollable leakage with her bowel movements and the need to wear adult diapers going to work, which caused significant distress in her life. 

A repeat exam under anesthesia was performed and a second debridement of the anal canal was performed.  This again showed a significant amount of radiation necrosis with no evidence of tumor. 

Within 1 month after her final debridement, she had a complete reversal of her symptoms and regained rectal continence. She became less anxious and returned to work without issues. She continues to be monitored without evidence of recurrence with a completely healed anal canal. 

Discussion

We report on the first published case of radiation necrosis of the anal canal after definitive treatment using standard radiation doses and chemotherapy.

In reviewing anal cancer studies including Nigro et al, ACT I, ACT II, ACCORD 03, RTOG 9811, and RTOG 0529, there is no mention of radiation necrosis [4,6,8,9]. In fact, the clinical trials that performed dose escalation did not report any radiation necrosis [11-13].

RTOG 0529 was a phase 2 multi-institutional randomized trial that compared IMRT dose painting radiation to 3D conformal radiation technique with concurrent mitomycin based chemotherapy [9]. The use of IMRT resulted in significant decrease in gastrointestinal, dermatologic, and hematologic toxicities but can increase radiation hotspots [10,14]. Review of the literature showed that some studies investigated the predictive factors of early and late local toxicities in anal cancer but none were related to radiation dosimetric parameters [15]. As radiation necrosis is seemingly a rare event for this dose and fractionation, there are no direct treatment correlates.

For our patient who developed radiation necrosis, IMRT was used with standard dosing and technique and the constraints for RTOG 0529 were all met.  The maximum radiation hot spot was 55.54 Gy (110%). She also received standard chemotherapy dosing, and was not on any medications that could act as a radiosensitizer. We could not identify any risk factors that could contribute to the necrosis.

In conclusion, the treatment for localized anal cancer is concurrent chemo-radiation with good loco-regional control rate.  Unfortunately, there can be a risk of radiation necrosis that can negatively impact the patient’s quality of life.  There are no clear risk factors for radiation necrosis in this case and perhaps the patient’s genetic factors could predispose. Current practitioners should be aware of radiation necrosis as a possible cause of persistent symptoms in anal cancer patients.

Conflict of Interest

None

References

  1. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2018) Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 68: 7-30.
  2. Schraut WH, Wang CH, Dawson PJ, Block GE (1983) Depth of invasion, location, and size of cancer of the anus dictate operative treatment. Cancer 51: 1291-1296.
  3. Touboul E, Schlienger M, Buffat L (1994) Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Results of curative-intent radiation therapy in a series of 270 patients. Cancer 73: 1569-1579.
  4. Nigro ND, Vaitkevicius VK, Considine B (1993) Combined therapy for cancer of the anal canal: a preliminary report 1974. Dis Colon Rectum 36: 709-711.
  5. Peiffert D, Seitz JF, Rougier P (1997) Preliminary results of a phase II study of high-dose radiation therapy and neoadjuvant plus concomitant 5-fluorouracil with CDDP chemotherapy for patients with anal canal cancer: a French cooperative study. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol 8: 575-581.
  6. Glynne-Jones R, Sebag-Montefiore D, Meadows HM (2017) Best time to assess complete clinical response after chemoradiotherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (ACT II): a post-hoc analysis of randomised controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 18: 347-356.
  7. Downing A, Morris EJA, Aravani A (2015) The Effect of the UK Coordinating Centre for Cancer Research Anal Cancer Trial (ACT1) on Population-based Treatment and Survival for Squamous Cell Cancer of the Anus. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 27: 708-712.
  8. 8. Ajani JA, Winter KA, Gunderson LL, et al. Fluorouracil, mitomycin, and radiotherapy vs fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the anal canal: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 299: 1914-1921.
  9. Kachnic LA, Winter K, Myerson RJ (2013) RTOG 0529: A Phase 2 Evaluation of Dose-Painted Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combination With 5-Fluorouracil and Mitomycin-C for the Reduction of Acute Morbidity in Carcinoma of the Anal Canal. Int J Radiat Oncol 86: 27-33.
  10. Fredman ET, Abdel-Wahab M2, Kumar AMS1,3 (2017) Influence of radiation treatment technique on outcome and toxicity in anal cancer. J Radiat Oncol 6: 413-421. [Crossref]
  11. Aggarwal A, Duke S, Glynne-Jones R (2013) Anal cancer: are we making progress? Curr Oncol Rep 15: 170-181. [Crossref]
  12. Glynne-Jones R, Tan D, Hughes R1, Hoskin P1 (2016) Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus: progress in radiotherapy treatment. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 13: 447-459. [crossref]
  13. Glynne-Jones R, Lim F (2011) Anal cancer: an examination of radiotherapy strategies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 79: 1290-1301. [Crossref]
  14. Atrash F, Kaidar-Person O, Billan S. Toxicity of Treatment for Anal Carcinoma: 2D versus 3D Planning. Isr Med Assoc J 17: 414-417.
  15. Doyen J, Benezery K, Follana P, Ortholan C, Gérard JP, et al. (2013) Predictive factors for early and late local toxicities in anal cancer treated by radiotherapy in combination with or without chemotherapy. Dis Colon Rectum 56: 1125-1133. [Crossref]
  16. Pizarro F, Hernández A (2017) Optimization of radiotherapy fractionation schedules based on radiobiological functions. Br J Radiol 90: 20170400. [Crossref]

Editorial Information

Editor-in-Chief

Dr. Vita Golubovskaya
USA

Article Type

Case Report

Publication history

Received date: June 07, 2018
Accepted date: June 18, 2018
Published date: June 21, 2018

Copyright

© 2018 Chang T. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Citation

Chang T, Trunzo J, Kumar A (2018) Radiation necrosis after definitive chemo-radiation of anal canal squamous cell carcinoma. Trends Cancer Res Chemother 1: DOI: 10.15761/TCRC.1000107

Corresponding author

Tangel Chang

Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospital, Cleveland Medical Center, 11100 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

E-mail : bhuvaneswari.bibleraaj@uhsm.nhs.uk

No Figures