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Metastatic choriocarcinoma with tumour lysis syndrome

Birthe Osorio

Department of Oncology, Offenburg University, Ortenau Klinikum Offenburg, Germany

E-mail : bhuvaneswari.bibleraaj@uhsm.nhs.uk

Heidrun Männle

Department of Oncology, Offenburg University, Ortenau Klinikum Offenburg, Germany

Karsten Münstedt

Department of Oncology, Offenburg University, Ortenau Klinikum Offenburg, Germany

DOI: 10.15761/CCRR.1000472

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Abstract

We report on a 32-year-old woman, gravida 5, para 2 who presented with a rapidly growing process of a choriocarcinoma after spontaneous birth. Two weeks after delivery, the patient suffered from dyspnoe, tachycardia and two large ovarian cysts. Diagnostic showed a metastasis choriocarcinoma in the lung. After the first application of chemotherapy according to the EMACO protocol the patient degraded quickly. She had a respiratory distress syndrome and an endotracheal intubation was necessary. We suspected a massive tumour cell lysis with haemorrhage after chemotherapy. Tumourlysis syndrome in choriocarcinoma is a rare complication as it is in solid tumours. Treatment in the intensive care unit allowed continuation of chemotherapy with EMACO. The general health state of the patient improves slowly and ß-HCG falled. After 78 days of hospitalization the patient was able to be discharged from hospital.

Introduction

Choriocarcinoma is a gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). It is a malignant cancer usually of the placenta. This type of malignancy is characterized by intimately related syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts with extensive haemorrhage. Two types can be differentiated: low and high risk. The dissemination of metastasis is typical for high-risk choriocarcinoma. 25% of choriocarcinoma occur after spontaneous birth; the others, after an extra uterine pregnancy and miscarriage. In Europe, there are only rare cases of choriocarcinoma whereas in Asia and Africa the incidence is much higher [1,2]. The cure rates are good, when therapy starts quickly. In high risk choriocarcinoma the gold standard for treatment is a multi-agent chemotherapy with etoposide, actinomycin D, methotrexate, cyclophophamid and vincristine (EMACO).

A monotherapy with etoposide has also good effects on metastatic choriocarcinoma and can be discussed [3]. Surgery does not play a major role.

Case report

A 32-year-old woman G5 P2 after spontaneous birth with 40+0 week of pregnancy presented with tachycardia and shivering during postnatal hospitalization. The results in blood examination showed a hyperthyroidism (TSH 0,01 IU/ml, fT3 19,95 pg/ml, fT4 6,28 ng/dl) and the IRM revealed bilateral multicompartment cysts from the ovaries (10ⲭ10 cm).

According to the patient’s history these cysts had been diagnosed during pregnancy already. The symptoms were tolerable for the patient and she wished to breast feed her child. A treatment with Thiamazol and Propanolol for hyperthyreosis was refused. One week later the patient came to the emergency room with lower abdominal pain. The examination showed a patient in a reduced general condition with tachycardia and dyspnea at rest. The lochia were normal, there were no abnormal bleedings. The bilateral mulitcompartment cysts were stable and without signs of torsion. The further radiological diagnostics revealed multiple metastasis in the lungs, suspect nodules in mediastinum, and no metastasis in brain. Since the patient’s mother had had a thyroid cancer and she presented with the signs of hyperthyroidism we suspected a thyroid cancer. However, further diagnostics (sonography of thyroid and scintigraphy of the thyroid) were unremarkable. High b-hcg serum values (149074 mU/ml) led the way to diagnosis. According to the staging the patient has a FIGO III choriocarcinoma with a WHO-Score of 14; so it must be considered as a high-risk carcinoma. Based on this diagnosis a multi-agent chemotherapy with etoposide, actinomycin D, methotrexate, cyclophophamid and vincristine was started immediately. After the first administration, the general condition of the patient worsened. The dyspnea at rest aggravated and the patient had to be intubated. The patient presented an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and needed an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We supposed a tumour lysis syndrome. The multiagent chemotherapy was continued under extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Finally, the patient stabilized and was extubated. The value of b-hcg decreased (see below). 78 days after diagnosis the patient went home in good general condition.

Discussion

The tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncological emergency which is caused by massive tumour cell lysis at the first application of chemotherapy. The danger of TLS is especially high when the proliferation rate from the tumour is high and when a rapid response of chemotherapy is to be expected. It showed hyperphosphatemia with hypocalcaemia, hyperuricemia and hyperkalaemia. These electrolyte and metabolic disturbances can progress to clinical toxic effects, including renal insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures and death to multiorgan failure. Therefore, an immediate handling in intensive care is needed.

Table 1. b-HCG progression

Period

Dosage

Day 1 (before chemotherapy)

150000 mU/ml

Day 6 (before chemotherapy)

1.600.000 mU/ml

Day 12 (4 days after chemotherapy)

511.00 mU/ml

Day 47

155 mU/ml

TLS appears primarily in lymphatic or hematopoietic cancers, in solid tumours it’s unusual [4,5].

When risk factors (mass of tumour, renal insufficiency, preexisting hyperuricemia, cardiovascular disease, exsiccosis, elevated LDH) exist, a prevention for TLS is recommended. It is recommended to avoid nephrotoxic substances, to avoid potassium sparing diuretics and to avoid too much phosphate supply. It is important to supply liquids (3 l per day) and to start a treatment with Allopurinol or better Uratoxidase (Rasburicase) as a prophylactic treatment. The main goal of treatment is to prevent the occurrence of renal dysfunction which is associated with heavy morbidity and mortality [6].

Especially the treatment with Uratoxidase (Rasburicase) is effective. It decreases the need for dialysis [7].

Our patient didn’t show any sign of kidney failure, but an acute respiratory distress syndrome which needed an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). In the FIGO cancer report from 2018 [8] an ultrahigh risk group with a WHO risk score of 13 or greater is identified. It is recommended that for those with massive disease it could be better to start with an initial gentle chemotherapy with Etoposide 100 mg/m2 and Cisplatin 20 mg/m2 on days 1-2, repeated weekly for 1-3 weeks, before starting normal chemotherapy [9,10]. The identification of high-risk patients of a TLS is indispensable before beginning a chemotherapy. Then it needs to be discussed if a preventive treatment with Uratoxidase (Rasburicase) and/or a gentle induction chemotherapy should be done.

Conclusion

Our case report shows a quickly processing choriocarcinoma and the complication of a TLS, which is rare in choriocarcinoma. The vaginal bleeding was not the main symptom, but hyperthyroidism which is a consequence of a choriocarcinoma and the large ovarian cysts. One can learn from this case that it is important to identify the risk factors from TLS before starting treatment and to discuss a prevention treatment with Uratoxidase (Rasburicase) and a gentle induction chemotherapy to avoid an eventual hospitalization in intensive care unit.

References

  1. Steigrad SJ (2003) Epidemiology of gestational trophoblastic disease. Best Prect Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 17: 837-847. [Crossref]
  2. Lybol C, Thomas CM, Bulten J, Van Dijck JA, Sweep FC, et al. (2011) Increase in the incidence of gestational trophoblastic disease in the Netherlands. Gynecol Oncol 121: 334-338. [Crossref]
  3. Breitbach GP, Sklavounos P, Veith C, Costa SD, Kuhn W, et al. (2019) Oral etoposide for metastatic choriocarcinoma: A case report and review of guidelines. Arch Gynecol Obstet 299: 1115-1119. [Crossref]
  4. Drakos P, Bar-Ziv J, Catane R (1994) Tumor lysis syndrome in nonhematologic malignancies. Report of a case and review of literature. Am J Clin Oncol 17: 502-505. [Crossref]
  5. Dhakal P, Rai MP, Thrasher M, Sharma M (2018) Spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome in small cell lung cancer: a rare phenomenon. BMJ Case Rep pii: bcr-2018-224512. [Crossref]
  6. Dupré A, Mousseaux C, Bouguerba A, Ayed S, Barchazs J, et al.(2017) Analysis of the 2015 British guidelines on the prevention and management of tumor lysissyndrome. Rev Med Interne 38: 36-43. [Crossref]
  7. Patte C, Sakiroglu O, Sommelet D (2001) Europea experience in the treatment of hyperuricemia. Semin Hematol 38: 9-12. [Crossref]
  8. Ngan HYS, Seckl MJ, Berkowitz RS, Xiang Y, Golfier F, et al. (2018) Update on the diagnosis and management of gestational trophoblastic disease. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 143: 79-85. [Crossref]
  9. Bolze PA, Riedl C, Massardier J, Lotz JP, You B, et al. (2016) Mortality rate of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia with a FIGO score >13. AM J Obstet Gynecol 390: e1-e8. [Crossref]
  10. Alifrangis C, Agarwal R, Short D, Fisher RA, Sebire NJ, et al. (2013) EMA/CO for high risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: Good outcomes with induction low-dose etoposide-cisplatin and genetic analysis. J Clin Oncol 31: 280-286. [Crossref]

Editorial Information

Editor-in-Chief

Andy Goren
University of Rome, Italy

Article Type

Case Report

Publication history

Received date: February 19, 2020
Accepted date: March 09, 2020
Published date: March 16,2020

Copyright

©2020 Osorio B. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Citation

Birthe Osorio, Heidrun Männle (2020) Metastatic choriocarcinoma with tumour lysis syndrome. Clin Case Rep Rev, 6: DOI:10.15761/CCRR.1000472

Corresponding author

Birthe Osorio

Department of Oncology, Offenburg University, Ortenau Klinikum Offenburg, Germany

E-mail : bhuvaneswari.bibleraaj@uhsm.nhs.uk

Table 1. b-HCG progression

Period

Dosage

Day 1 (before chemotherapy)

150000 mU/ml

Day 6 (before chemotherapy)

1.600.000 mU/ml

Day 12 (4 days after chemotherapy)

511.00 mU/ml

Day 47

155 mU/ml